Lateral Hypothalamic Area


In the hypothalamus, PPARgamma immunoreactivity was observed in a majority of neurons in the arcuate (including both agouti-related protein (AgRP)- and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)-containing cells) and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei, and was also present in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, the lateral hypothalamic area, and in TH-containing neurons in the VTA, but was not expressed in the NTS.  

It is produced by a small cluster of the brains neurons, located mainly in and around the lateral hypothalamic area.  

It was suggested half a century ago that electrical impulses from the lateral hypothalamic area stimulate breathing.  

Both NUCB2 mRNA and nesfatin-like immunoreactivity was most concentrated in the hypothalamus, in the supraoptic, paraventricular, periventricular and arcuate nuclei and the lateral hypothalamic area/perifornical region.  

The hypocretinergic (HCRT) neurons of the perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area (PF-LHA) and serotonergic (5-HT) neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are mostly active during waking and have been implicated in the regulation of arousal.  

Intense AdipoR1 immunostaining was observed in neurons of lateral hypothalamic area and of nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM).  

We hypothesize that this inhibition is directed at those neurons in the paraventricular nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area that constitute the hypothalamic "behavior controller" for feeding rather than their afferent inputs from the arcuate nucleus or hindbrain that convey critical feeding-related sensory information. We found that the Fos response to combined dehydration and 2DG was attenuated only in the lateral hypothalamic area, with dehydration alone increasing Fos in the lateral part of the paraventricular nucleus. Therefore, dehydration appears to target the lateral hypothalamic area and possibly the lateral part of the paraventricular nucleus to suppress the feeding response to 2DG..  

The reward system contains the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum and finally sends information to the lateral hypothalamic area, the feeding center.  

Shortening of photoperiod combined with lowering of ambient temperature and food deprivation had no effect on the number of CART-immunoreactive cells in the lateral hypothalamic area.  

Glucose-sensitive neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area produce orexin-A (OxA) as well as orexin-B (OxB) and send their axons to the spinal dorsal horn, which predominantly expresses orexin receptor-1 (OX-1), showing a higher sensitivity to OxA.  

Moreover, as described for the rat, predator-exposed mice also presented increased Fos levels in the autonomic and parvicellular parts of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, lateral preoptic area and subfornical region of the lateral hypothalamic area.  

The arcuate nucleus and paraventricular nucleus showed a significant reduction in CART mRNA expression in DIO mice compared to DR mice on the HF diet (-19.6%, p=0.019; -26.1%, p=0.003); whilst a profound increase in CART mRNA expression was observed in the dorsomedial nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area (+44.5%, p=0.007; +37.4%, p=0.033).  

These include: the medial preoptic nucleus; median and lateral preoptic area; medial division of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis; paraventricular nucleus; central nucleus of the amygdala; dorsal hypothalamic area/dorsomedial hypothalamus; lateral hypothalamic area; lateral, ventrolateral and dorsomedial divisions of the periaqueductal grey; dorsal raphe nuclei; parabrachial nuclei; K├Âlliker-Fuse nucleus; intertrigeminal region; rostral ventrolateral medulla; lateral parafacial region; and the ventral respiratory group.  

In the hypothalamus of juvenile and middle-aged rats that were raised in control (10 pups) or FR litters (20 pups), gene expression was investigated for neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC); CRH and TRH in the paraventricular nucleus; and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area. These results suggest that in neonatal rats, FR already triggers the ARC, and to a lesser extent the lateral hypothalamic area, but not the paraventricular nucleus, to increase expression of orexigenic relative to anorexigenic peptides.  

TRH-immunoreactive (ir) cell somata and preproTRH mRNA expression were found to be widely distributed throughout the medial hypothalamus, with particular clusters in the paraventricular nucleus, the medial preoptic area and periventricular nucleus, and in the dorsomedial hypothalamus extending into the lateral hypothalamic area.  

Moreover, an increase in the numbers of alpha-MSH positively immunostained neural cells in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), as well as a significant decrease in the numbers of neural cells positively immunostained for MC4-R in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), without changes in lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), were observed.  

Immunoreactive multipolar or spindle-shaped neurons form clusters with bilateral symmetry, localized predominantly in the lateral hypothalamic area, with extensions into the zona incerta and the dorso-medial and ventro-medial hypothalamic region.  

Movement restriction (40min) induced c-Fos protein expression primarily in cells with 10-50mum(2) sizes (associative type neurons) only in anterior hypothalamic nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area; while additional EHF-irradiation of acupuncture projection areas (under movement restriction) induced c-Fos expression in all hypothalamic structures and mostly in cells with 70-150mum(2) sizes (relay type neurons), i.e.  

Specific binding was identified in the appetite-regulating arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and the lateral hypothalamic area corresponding to the previously reported distribution pattern of GHS-R mRNA.  

Both peptides are highly expressed in the lateral hypothalamic area of the brain and are involved in the regulation of many functions of the body, the best investigated of which is food intake.  

A moderate expression of mUBPy was found in the amygdaloid complex, supraoptic nucleus, arcuate and ventromedial nuclei of hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamic area and lateral and reticular part of the substantia nigra.  

In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PAH), lateral hypothalamic area (LH), paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT), periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), locus coeruleus (LC), lateral parabrachial nucleus (Pbl), the complex of the solitary tract nucleus (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMX), numbers of neurons expressing c-Fos protein were much higher in test than in control experiments.  

The highest level of activation in hypothalamic structures was seen in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHN) and posterior hypothalamic area (PH) after electrical pain stimulation and in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and lateral hypothalamic area level 28 (LHA-28) after i.v.  

Cellular metabolic stasis is monitored in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), the classically defined hypothalamic "anoretic" and "satiety" centers, respectively.  

The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) participates in the integration of sensory information and somatomotor responses associated with hunger and thirst.  

To examine differences in the hypothalamic NPY between layer-type and meat-type of chickens, which are two divergent kinds of the domestic chickens in feeding behavior and body weight, we detected mRNA levels of NPY in hypothalamic infundibular nucleus (IN), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of these two types of chickens using one-step real time RT-PCR.  

Electrical stimulation of the medial part of the nucleus evoked marked excitatory reactions in neurons in the medial part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the rostral part of the lateral hypothalamic area. A series of histochemical studies following activation of the central nucleus demonstrated increases in the quantity and optical densities of NADP diaphorase (NADP-d)-positive neurons in the parvocellular zone of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the medial part of the lateral hypothalamic area. The activity of nitroergic cells in the ventrolateral part of the lateral hypothalamic area was suppressed in these conditions.  

Melanin-concentrating hormone and orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area were also found to provide input to the VMN and ARC.  

Previous anatomical work has shown that both MCH and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) are found in quantity in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), a structure long associated with appetite and ingestive behavior.  

They were initially recognized as regulators of feeding behavior in view of their exclusive production in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), a region known as the feeding center, and their pharmacological activity [ 104,30,49,107].  

We also examined whether caudal hindbrain lactate repletion alters the impact of hypoglycemia on substrate fuel uptake and metabolic sensing functions in other characterized metabolic monitoring sites, e.g., the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA).  

Injection of cyclophosphamide (40mg/kg) or EHF-irradiation of the skin decreased the staining of orexin-containing neurons, which was most pronounced in the subfornical region of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHAs).  

Both the transcript and protein of MTMR9 were detected in the rodent lateral hypothalamic area as well as in the arcuate nucleus, and the protein co-existed with orexin, melanin concentrating hormone, neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin.  

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Baobaole oral liquid on neuronal excitability in lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclear (VMN) in anorectic rats.  

To examine this hypothesis, we measured the extracellular noradrenaline (NA) levels in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH), ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and lateral hypothalamic area, which are especially important in the regulation of energy metabolism, after intracisternal administration of TGF-beta by using an in vivo brain microdialysis.  

Ventromedial nucleus, dorsomedial nucleus and preoptic area-labeled neurons were observed after injection of the PRV into the perirenal adipose tissue, while in the lateral hypothalamic area-labeled neurons projected only to the subcutaneous adipose tissue.  

In male rats, neurons expressing MCH are found in the lateral hypothalamic area and medial zona incerta, as well as, sparsely, in the olfactory tubercle and pontine reticular formation.  

Interestingly, LPS also reduce orexin expression and the activity of orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area of fasted mice.  

The arcuate nucleus (Arc) and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), two key hypothalamic nuclei regulating feeding behavior, express c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation in fasted animals.  

EHF irradiation of the skin activates hypothalamic cells of the size ranging from 10 to 70 microm2 in the paraventricular, dorsomedial nuclei, and in perifonical zone of the lateral hypothalamic area.  

Neuronal circuits including medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-containing neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) are hypothesized to play an important role in hedonic feeding.  

Several hypothalamic peptides that participate in the control of ingestive behavior are produced in neuronal cell bodies of the arcuate nucleus and/or the lateral hypothalamic area. In the lateral hypothalamic area, hypocretin/orexin neurons express VGLUT1 or VGLUT2, but not GAD, whereas some melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) cells contain GAD.  

RESULTS: Orexin-positive cells were observed in the lateral hypothalamic area of each species, though there were differences with respect to distribution within this region.  

This phenomenon of conditioned potentiation of feeding is mediated by connections between the forebrain and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA).  

Cells in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) facilitate motivated behaviors, and the activity of VTA neurons is regulated by dense projections from the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA).  

High densities of 26RFa binding sites were observed in olfactory, hypothalamic, and brainstem nuclei involved in the control of feeding behavior, including the piriform cortex, the ventromedial and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei, the paraventricular nucleus, the arcuate nucleus, the lateral hypothalamic area, and the nucleus of the solitary tract.  

nociceptin produced a significant increase in Fos staining in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, the perinuclear zone of the supraoptic nucleus, the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), the lateral preoptic area and the lateral hypothalamic area compared to control.  

This article discusses experimental evidence supporting a model whereby the increases in plasma osmolality that result from drinking hypertonic saline activate pathways projecting to neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA).  

On the 5th day, viral labeling was seen in the hypothalamic paraventricular and arcuate nuclei and the lateral hypothalamic area.  

In addition, restraint led to significant increases of c-Fos expression in several brain regions related to stress or anxiety including paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), lateral hypothalamic area (LH), central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA), medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA) and cingulate and retrosplenial cortices (Cg/RS), paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT), and basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA).  

There was a decreased level of nNOS mRNA and protein in the subfornical organ and the periventricular hypothalamic nucleus of the CIH rats, but no significant change in the supraoptic nucleus or the lateral hypothalamic area.  

Here we examined the neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of chronically dehydrated rats for their peptidergic phenotype, colocalization, and activation profiles following the rapid reversal of anorexia.  

Recurrent insulin-induced hypoglycemia (RIIH) impairs glucose counter-regulatory function in male humans and rodents and, in the latter, diminishes neuronal activation in CNS structures that monitor metabolic homeostasis, including the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC).  

Immunohistochemistry indicated that the expression of NPY protein increases in the arcuate nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, and paraventricular nucleus 7 days after onset of continuous NPY-ab infusion and remains at an elevated level, whereas the expression of the NPY Y1 receptor transiently increases in the same areas for 3 days and then gradually decreases.  

Mean numbers of Fos-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus hypothalamus (PVH), dorsomedial nucleus hypothalamus (DMH), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) were higher in both E- versus oil-implanted OVX rats injected with diluent only.  

The perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area (PF/LH) contains neuronal groups playing an important role in control of waking and sleep.  

The reward system contains the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, and ventral pallidum; it finally sends information to the lateral hypothalamic area, the feeding center.  

The hypocretin (HCRT) system of the perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area (PF-LHA) has been implicated in the facilitation of behavioral arousal.  

Electrical stimulation of the medial area of the central nucleus caused obvious excitatory neuronal reactions within the medial part of the paraventricular nucleus and rostral portion of the lateral hypothalamic area. The nistochemical study revealed that the central nucleus stimulation caused an increase in number and optical density of the NADPH-d-positive cells within the parvicellular zone of the paraventricular nucleus and in the medial part of the lateral hypothalamic area. The NO-producing cells within the ventrolateral part of the lateral hypothalamic area were inhibited.  

SCG3 mRNA and immunoreactivity were detected in the paraventricular nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, and arcuate nucleus, and the protein coexisted with orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, neuropeptide Y, and proopiomelanocortin.  

Centrally administered NPS increased Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the paraventricular, dorsomedial nuclei and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of the hypothalamus, the midline thalamic nuclei, and the amygdala, many parts of which are involved in the regulation of emotion, arousal, and feeding.  

Only few B-ir cells were scattered in the most anterior part of the lateral hypothalamic area.  

Administration of Cytoxan in a dose of 60 mg/kg increased the number of c-Fos-positive cells in the ventromedial hypothalamus and lateral hypothalamic area and reduced interferon-alpha-induced cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells.  

Brain microinjection studies have revealed that the positive-linked receptors are located in eight to nine brain regions spanning the neuraxis including the secondary motor cortex, piriform cortex, nucleus accumbens, preoptic area, lateral hypothalamic area, vermis cerebellum, locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe and possibly the C1 nucleus of the ventrolateral medulla, whereas the stress-linked receptors are present in at least three areas including the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, central nucleus of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

Successive administration of somatostatin and leptin diminished the level of STAT3-phosphorylation and nuclear STAT3 translocation in the ventromedial and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei, the lateral hypothalamic area, and the arcuate nucleus by about 40% compared to leptin administration alone.  

Forebrain labeling was restricted to the diencephalon, where distinctive terminal fields were observed in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus; the lateral hypothalamic area; and the paraventricular, dorsomedial, supraoptic, and median preoptic nuclei of hypothalamus.  

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic 19-amino acid neuropeptide exclusively synthesized in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and the zona incerta (ZI) that has been implicated in the regulation of energy balance.  

In males, the localization of NEI is almost identical to that of MCH, the cell bodies of both being located primarily in the lateral hypothalamic area and zona incerta, projecting fibers throughout the brain.  

Neurons that synthesize the potent orexigenic neuropeptide, orexin-A (ORX-A) are confined to the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and adjacent structures, and project throughout the central neuroaxis to structures that govern central nervous system responses to energy imbalance.  

Extratelencephalic projections of PoAc terminate in the dorsomedial thalamic nuclei and reach the lateral hypothalamic area via the hypothalamic part of the occipito-mesencephalic tract.  

This study examined the ingestive and behavioral effects of NMDA- and AMPA/kainate glutamatergic receptor blockade in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHy) of free-feeding pigeons (Columba livia).  

Fewer neurotensinergic, VTA-projecting neurons are situated in the dorsal raphe, pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area, ventral endopiriform area, lateral septum, accumbens shell, parabrachial nucleus and different parts of the extended amygdala.  

To test this hypothesis we examined orexin B-immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and the LC of male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) throughout the life span.  

Infected neurons were in the ventromedial nucleus, dorsomedial nucleus and preoptic area after injection of PRV into perirenal adipose tissue, while infected cells in the lateral hypothalamic area projected only to the subcutaneous adipose tissue depot.  

To examine the hypothesis that this chronic stress may alter basal and/or hypoglycemic patterns of GR gene expression in a site-specific manner, real-time RT-PCR techniques were utilized to evaluate tissue GR mRNA levels in the microdissected lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and paraventricular (PVH), dorsomedial (DMH), ventromedial (VMH), and arcuate (ARH) hypothalamic nuclei, before and after one or four injections, on as many days, of the intermediate-acting insulin formulation, Humulin NPH (NPH), while controls were treated with diluent alone.  

Current studies show that type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR) stimulation during recurring insulin-induced hypoglycemia (RIIH) results in diminished hypoglycemic activation of neurons in discrete CNS metabolic structures, namely the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), hypothalamic paraventricular (PVH) and dorsomedial (DMH) nuclei, and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).  

The vlPOA and subdivisions of the lamina terminalis project to hypothalamic regions involved in the control of behavioral, electrographic or autonomic arousal, including the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN).  

Orexin containing neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) produce orexin-A (hypocretin-1) and orexin-B (hypocretin-2) and send their axons to the hippocampus, which predominantly expresses orexin 1 receptors (OX1Rs) showing a higher affinity to orexin-A.  

To test the hypothesis that orexin A affects the amount of time spent moving, we injected orexin A (0-1000 pmol) into three orexin projection sites in male Sprague-Dawley rats: hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, rostral lateral hypothalamic area and substantia nigra pars compacta, and measured spontaneous physical activity. Muscimol significantly and dose-dependently inhibited orexin A effects on time spent moving only when administered to the rostral lateral hypothalamic area.  

Orexin A and B-ir neurons were located in a single population centered on the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus extending into the lateral hypothalamic area, consistent with other studies in birds.  

Orexins were initially recognized as regulators of feeding behavior due to their exclusively production in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), a feeding center.  

However, the expression of orexinIR neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) was decreased (27.8+/-2.6 vs 20.6+/-1.7, P<0.01).  

The lateral hypothalamic area (LHa) is an important brain site for the regulation of food intake.  

Within the lateral hypothalamic area, amylin diminishes the expression of orexigenic neuropeptides such as orexin and MCH.  

We have reported that exacerbated hypoglycemia and attenuated patterns of glucagon and epinephrine secretion in rats treated by daily sc injection of the intermediate-acting insulin formulation, Humulin NPH (NPH), are correlated with diminished immunodemonstrability of the AP-1 transcription factor, Fos, in several components of the central metabolic regulatory circuitry, including the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA).  

Adult male Wistar rats were then cannulated into the rostral preoptic area at the level of the OVLT (RPOA), the MPOA, the paraventricular (PVN), dorsomedial (DMN) and arcuate hypothalamic nuclei, and the lateral hypothalamic area.  

Repeated daily injection of NPH exacerbated hypoglycemia, attenuated patterns of glucagon and epinephrine secretion, and diminished neuronal transcriptional activation in discrete CNS metabolic loci, including the lateral hypothalamic area, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract. delivery of 25 or 100 ng doses of CP-472555 did not alter any of these parameters, animals treated with 500 ng exhibited circulating glucose, glucagon, and epinephrine levels that were similar to those in rats injected with one dose of insulin, as well as a reversal of recurring insulin-induced hypoglycemia-associated reductions in Fos immunolabeling in the lateral hypothalamic area, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus.  

GnRH-immunoreactive (ir) cells were localized in the posterior commissure and lateral hypothalamic area. Some of the serotonin-ir fibers extending from the PVO to the lateral hypothalamic area contacted the GnRH-ir cell bodies.  

The present review attempts to integrate psychopharmacological data on serotonergic control over ejaculation with the knowledge of the neuroanatomical substrate of ejaculation, indicating the importance of the lumbosacral spinal cord, the nucleus paragigantocellularis, the lateral hypothalamic area and several other supraspinal areas.  

It indeed contained 19% of the CTb/Fos double-labeled neurons, whereas the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) contained 18.3% of these neurons, the lateral paragigantocellular reticular nucleus (LPGi) 15%, the lateral hypothalamic area 9%, the lateral PAG 6.7%, and the rostral PAG 6%.  

The icv administration of des-acyl ghrelin induced the expression of Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in orexin-expressing neurons of the lateral hypothalamic area, but not neuropeptide Y-expressing neurons of the arcuate nucleus.  

GK activity in vehicle-treated rats was high in the arcuate nucleus, moderate or low in the ventromedial nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, and paraventricular nucleus, and very low in the cortex.  

Among the regions displaying the most intense labelling were the olfactory tubercle, lateral septum (LS), caudate putamen (Cpu), central amygdaloid nucleus (Ce), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SO), lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), lateral reticular nucleus (LRt) and solitary tract nucleus (NTS).  

Treatment with higher doses of 4CIN (25 or 50 microg) further augmented numbers of Fos-ir-positive neurons in these structures, and also elicited staining of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST), medial preoptic (MPN), arcuate (ARH), supraoptic (SO), and anterior hypothalamic nuclei (AHN), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA).  

Among injections of cholera toxin b-subunit (CTb), a retrograde tracer, into hypothalamic regions at the rostrocaudal level of the DMH, injections into the DMH, lateral hypothalamic area (LH) and dorsal hypothalamic area (DH) resulted in EP3 receptor immunolabelling in substantial populations of CTb-labeled neurons in the POA.  

After injection of Fluoro-Gold into the medial zone of hypothalamic tuberal region and the lateral hypothalamic area, respectively, endomorphin 1/Fluoro-Gold or endomorphin 2/Fluoro-Gold double-labeled neuronal cell bodies were found chiefly in the medial, commissural, lateral and gelatinous parts of the nucleus tractus solitarii.  

OBJECTIVE: To confirm the effect of Er'bao granule (EBG) on the sensitivity to peripheral afferent signal of neurons in lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) to illustrate the central mechanism of EBG in promoting ingestion behavior.  

Specific perikaryal immunostaining was detected primarily in scattered neurons near the lateral hypothalamic area and the perifornical nucleus.  

Previous investigations have demonstrated that the neuronal activity in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) is respectively modulated by afferent inputs from the gastric vagal nerves innervating the upper gastrointestinal tract, as well as the cerebellar interpositus nucleus (IN).  

Maternally-separated rats with melatonin administration showed significantly higher staining intensities of NADPH-d-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and in lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) than maternally-separated without melatonin administration (P < 0.05).  

The L-shaped anterior zone of the lateral hypothalamic area's subfornical region (LHAsfa) is delineated by a pontine nucleus incertus input. lateral hypothalamic area regions immediately medial, lateral, and caudal to the LHAsfa each generate quite distinct projection patterns.  

Expression of NOS in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of hypothalamus was examined by histochemistry for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-diaphorase).  

Two anatomically separated populations of labeled neurons were observed in the hypothalamus: one group was distributed along the dorsal zone of the lateral hypothalamic area, the lateral portion of the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and the perifornical nucleus; the other was located within the periventricular portion of the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus. In addition, premotor neurons containing hypocretin/orexin were distributed throughout the lateral dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, perifornical nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area. Other premotor neurons were immunostained for melanin concentrating hormone; these cells, which were located within the lateral hypothalamic area and the perifornical nucleus, were intermingled with glutamatergic and hypocretinergic/orexinergic neurons.  

MC4-R mRNA was impressively colocalized in PRV-labeled cells (approximately greater than 60%) in many brain areas across the neuroaxis, including those typically implicated in lipid mobilization (e.g., hypothalamic paraventricular, suprachiasmatic, arcuate and dorsomedial nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area), as well as those not traditionally identified with lipolysis (e.g., preoptic area, subzona incerta of the lateral hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray, solitary nucleus).  

In second-order neurons of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) mRNA expression was upregulated 2-fold in food-restricted running rats, but not in food-restricted sedentary controls.  

Histological control experiments found no significant effects when the drugs were injected into the nearby lateral hypothalamic area.  

RESULTS: We found that Narp colocalizes with hypocretin in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), the dorsal hypothalamic area (DHA), and the posterior hypothalamic area (PHA) of the normal human.  

RESULTS: Painful electric stimulation was associated with a significant decrease in splenic NK cytotoxicity and a dramatic increase in c-Fos-positive cell counts in some hypothalamic structures, particularly in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHN) and the perifornical lateral hypothalamic area (LHA).  

The lateral hypothalamic area, containing orexin neurons, is involved in several aspects of autonomic regulation, including thermoregulation and energy expenditure. To determine if activation of lateral hypothalamic area neurons influences sympathetically-regulated thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, we microinjected bicuculline (120 pmol, 60 nl, unilateral) into the lateral hypothalamic area in urethane/chloralose-anesthetized, artificially-ventilated rats. Disinhibition of neurons in lateral hypothalamic area evoked a significant increase (+1309%) in brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity accompanied by parallel increases in brown adipose tissue temperature (+2.0 degrees C), in expired CO2 (+0.6%), in heart rate (+88 bpm) and in mean arterial pressure (+11 mm Hg). Subsequent microinjections of glycine (30 nmol, 60 nl) to inhibit local neurons in raphe pallidus or in dorsomedial hypothalamus or of glutamate receptor antagonists into dorsomedial hypothalamus promptly reversed the increases in brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity, brown adipose tissue temperature and heart rate evoked by disinhibition of neurons in lateral hypothalamic area. We conclude that neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area can influence brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity, brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and heart rate through pathways that are dependent on the activation of neurons in dorsomedial hypothalamus and raphe pallidus..  

Leptin injected directly into the ventromedial hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area (particularly the perifornical area) increased lumbar sympathetic nerve activity.  

Single unit discharges in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), and the parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus(pPVN) were recorded extracellularly by means of four-barrel glass micropipettes in anesthetized rats.  

The discovery that the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) might be important in modulating drinking behavior and fluid balance has led to numerous studies aimed at identifying the key neurotransmitters/neuromodulators and pathways involved.  


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