Nucleus Of Lateral Olfactory Tract

Apart from common vomeronasal recipient structures in the amygdala, only the anterior accessory olfactory bulb projects to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and only the posterior accessory olfactory bulb projects to the dorsal anterior amygdala.  

The CoA is connected with the accessory olfactory nucleus, the piriform, the endopiriform and the orbitofrontal cortices while the MeA exhibited connections with the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, the perirhinal and the insular cortices. Reciprocal projections were observed between the CoA and the MeA and between both nuclei and the basal or the lateral nuclei of the amygdala with the exception of the CoA which does not send inputs to the lateral nucleus.  

Canine olfactory bulb-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) isolated from dog brains were expanded ex vivo and implanted into the caudate nucleus/thalamus or cortex of allogeneic dogs.  

Multiunit cross-adaptation experiments indicate that bile salts and amino acids bind to relatively independent receptor sites; however, nerve-twig data and single-fiber recordings suggest that both independent and shared neural pathways exist for the transmission of bile salt and amino acid information to the primary gustatory nucleus of the medulla..  

We removed the brains, measured the length of the olfactory bulbs, and counted BrdU-labelled cells in the main and accessory olfactory bulbs (MOB, AOB), lateral cortex (LC) and nucleus sphericus (NS).  

In contrast, serotonergic fibers, projecting from the raphe, sprout and have increased terminal density in the lateral septal nucleus and frontal cortex, following long-term cocaine or SSRI treatment.  

In response to OVA stimulation, the amount of c-Fos and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) increased, while that of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) decreased in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS).  

Bilateral lesions of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) eliminated the effects of olfactory stimulations with SGFO and SVLO on BAT-T and BT.  

Following tracer injections into the thalamus, retrogradely labelled neurons were found in the depth of the olfactory tubercle (particularly the hilus of the Callejal islands and the insula magna), in subdivisions of the diagonal band complex, the peripeduncular region and the thalamic reticular nucleus. The only regions projecting to the lateral thalamus appeared to be the thalamic reticular nucleus (RTh) and the dorsal peripeduncular nucleus (PpD). On the basis of immunohistochemical data and the topography of its thalamic projections, the PpD was considered to be an equivalent to the pregeniculate nucleus in other mammals.  

The diencephalic neuron cell bodies involved in reproductive functions are grouped in two main nuclei: the nucleus preopticus-periventricularis and the nucleus lateralis tuberis. The nucleus preopticus-periventricularis consists of the nucleus periventricularis and the nucleus preopticus consisting of a few sparse multipolar neurons in the rostral part and numerous cells closely packed and arranged in several layers in its aboral part. The nucleus lateralis tuberis is located in the ventral-lateral area of the diencephalon and is made up of a number of large multipolar neurones. sGnRH and cGnRH-II antisera revealed immunoreactivity in the perikarya of the olfactory bulbs, preopticus-periventricular nucleus, oculomotor nucleus and midbrain tegmentum. The nucleus lateralis tuberis showed immunostaining only with anti-sGnRH serum.  

Focal injection of tracer into genetically identified glomeruli revealed an exquisite topography that involves a bilateral connection via the anterior olfactory nucleus pars externa (AONpE) that links isofunctional olfactory columns in the contralateral MOB.  

describe the precise interbulbar connection through the anterior olfactory nucleus pars externa (AONpE), which links contralateral isotypic olfactory columns..  

Zinedin is primarily expressed in neurons of the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb and caudate putamen nucleus.  

Given the anatomical connectivity of the anterior olfactory nucleus and the amygdala, which receives axonal projections from the olfactory bulb, we hypothesized that there might be a relationship between tau and alpha-synuclein pathology in the olfactory bulb and the amygdala in AD.  

The disease process starts in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (dmX) and anterior olfactory nucleus and bulb, and from there, spreads through the brainstem nuclei to ultimately reach the SNpc, which then presents as symptomatic PD.  

Changes in intensity of GAP-43 expression in the medial vestibular nucleus, superior olivary nucleus, and torus semicircularis appeared correlated with stage-dependent functional changes in processing auditory stimuli. Immunolabeling in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum and in the cerebellar nucleus was detectable at most developmental time points.  

High activity was also detected in the dorsomedial medulla oblongata, in the septum, the prefrontal cortex, the olfactory bulb, the nucleus accumbens, and the hypothalamus, especially in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Immunostaining of human brain sections at the level of the medulla oblongata strengthened these data, showing for the first time a high density of immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies and fibers in the motor hypoglossal nucleus, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the Roller nucleus, the ambiguus nucleus, the inferior olivary complex, and in the external cuneate nucleus. APA immunoreactivity was also visualized in vessels and capillaries in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and the inferior olivary complex.  

RATIONALE: Behavioral and anatomical data suggest that the ventral striatum, consisting of the nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle, is functionally heterogeneous.  

Immunoreactive somata formed a single group in the hypothalamus, but were distributed beyond several nuclei, namely, the ventral aspect of the nucleus preopticus posterior, dorsal aspect of the nucleus suprachiasmaticus and anterior aspect of the pars ventralis hypothalami.  

Based on its striatal output, it has been subdivided in a caudomedial part which targets the ventromedial striatum, and a lateral part which targets the ventrolateral striatum [ Ikemoto S (2007) Dopamine reward circuitry: two projection systems from the ventral midbrain to the nucleus accumbens-olfactory tubercle complex. Whether these two VTA parts are interconnected and to what extent the VTA innervates the substantia nigra compacta (SNc) and retrorubral nucleus (RR) are critical issues for understanding information processing in the basal ganglia. The ventrolateral VTA innervates mainly the interfascicular nucleus. Modest inputs from the medial supramammillary nucleus to ventromedial parts of the VTA-nigral complex were also identified.  

Dense orexin-A- and -B-ir fibers were observed mainly in the granular cell layer and anterior olfactory nucleus.  

There are two functional pathways for the nasotrigeminal reflex: the spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve (SPV) to the K├Âlliker-Fuse (KF) nucleus and the nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBl).  

In squamate reptiles, which possess the largest vomeronasal system of all vertebrates, the accessory olfactory bulb projects to the nucleus sphericus, which in turn projects to a portion of the ventral striatum known as olfactostriatum. Injections of dextran-amines have been aimed at the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus (the putative mammalian homologue of the reptilian nucleus sphericus) of rats and mice. The resulting anterograde labeling includes the olfactory tubercle, the islands of Calleja and sparse terminal fields in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum. This projection has been confirmed by injections of retrograde tracers into the ventral striato-pallidum that render retrograde labeling in the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus.  

In mammals, both divisions consist of an intra-amygdaloid portion and a part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

However, accumulating evidence suggests that the dorsomedial nucleus (DM) of the thalamus is associated with odor. We describe a second such patient with infarctions involving the left DM and the right ventral posterior nucleus and ventral lateral nucleus, nuclei adjacent to the DM, associated with transient edema.  

These include the infralimbic, prelimbic, dorsal agranular insular, and entorhinal cortices, the ventral subiculum of the hippocampus, dorsal tenia tecta, claustrum, lateral septum, dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens (core and shell), olfactory tubercle, bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), medial, central, cortical, and basal nuclei of amygdala, and the suprachiasmatic, arcuate, and dorsomedial nuclei of the hypothalamus.  

Field potentials were recorded in the basolateral amygdala in response to stimulation of either the external capsule (neocortical inputs) or fibers from the cortical nucleus of the amygdala (olfactory inputs).  

In this study, using P19 cells as a differentiation model, we showed that ADNP expression and cytoplasm/nucleus distribution is unique in neuronal-differentiated cells compared to cardiovascular and nondifferentiated pluripotent cells.  

sociabilis exhibited a pattern of nucleus accumbens OTR and ventral pallidum V1aR binding different from that associated with the formation of opposite-sex pair bonds in microtine rodents. Higher binding in the central nucleus of the amygdala of C.  

The most extreme example was the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT), which seemed to be devoid of double-labeled fibers despite high densities of 5-HT fibers and VGLUT3-positive fibers.  

Moreover, electrolytic lesions of the mouse hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus eliminated changes in renal sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure induced by either scent of grapefruit oil or scent of lavender oil. In addition, responses of c-Fos inductions in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to scent of grapefruit oil observed in wild-type mice were not observed in Clock mutant mice.  

In addition, only cat odor caused pronounced activation of Fos in the accessory olfactory bulb and its projection areas, anterior olfactory nucleus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and a medial hypothalamic circuit associated with defensive behavior.  

We describe glycine-immunoreactive cell populations in the olfactory bulbs, the preoptic nucleus, and the thalamus of the sea lamprey, which is in striking contrast to their lack in the mammalian forebrain. We also observed glycine-immunoreactive populations in the optic tectum, the torus semicircularis and the midbrain tegmentum, the isthmus, the octavolateral area, the dorsal column nucleus, the abducens nucleus, the trigeminal motor nucleus, the facial motor nucleus, and the rhombencephalic reticular formation. In these populations, colocalization with GABA was observed in only some cells of the tegmental M5 nucleus, ventral isthmus, medial octavolateral nucleus, dorsal column nucleus, and lateral reticular region.  

In the present study, we assessed whether TMT was capable of causing neuronal degeneration in the olfactory bulb (OB) and anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) of the mouse brain. TMT treatment produced a marked translocation of phospho-c-Jun-N-terminal kinase from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the AON.  

P2X7-positive neurons were found in the anterior olfactory nucleus, cerebral cortex, piriform cortex (Pir), lateral septal nucleus (LS), hippocampal pyramidal cell layers of CA1, CA3, CA4, pontine nuclei, external cuneate nucleus, and medial vestibular nucleus. P2X7 hybridization signals were also observed in the motor neurons of the trigeminal motor nucleus, facial nucleus, hypoglossal nucleus, and the anterior horn of the spinal cord.  

One hour after a single stimulus was administered to non-kindled rats, mRNA levels of arc and Nurr1 increased significantly in the ipsilateral piriform cortex and medial amygdaloid nucleus. mRNA levels of NGFI-B increased significantly in the left piriform cortex, basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and medial amygdaloid nucleus.  

Several anterograde and retrograde tracing studies have provided detailed information on the afferent and efferent projections as well as the intrinsic connectivities of the endopiriform nucleus (EN).  

The posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus mainly projects to other amygdaloid nuclei; other seemingly minor outputs are directed to the ventral striatum, in particular to the olfactory tubercle and the islands of Calleja. RESULTS: Although the olfactory projections have been previously described in the literature, injection of dextran-amines into the rat main olfactory bulb was performed with the aim of delimiting the olfactory tubercle and posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus in our own material. Injection of dextran-amines into the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus of rats resulted in anterograde labeling in the ventral striatum, in particular in the core of the nucleus accumbens, and in the medial olfactory tubercle including some islands of Calleja and the cell bridges across the ventral pallidum. CONCLUSION: The present results extend previous descriptions of the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus efferent projections, which are mainly directed to the core of the nucleus accumbens and the medial olfactory tubercle. Our data indicate that the projection to the core of the nucleus accumbens arises from layer III; the projection to the olfactory tubercle arises from layer II and is much more robust than previously thought.  

In this paper, we present fate-mapping data on Nkx2.1-lineage neurons throughout the telencephalon, including the cerebral cortex, amygdala, olfactory bulb, striatum, globus pallidus, septum, and nucleus basalis..  

In situ hybridization analysis of NEP mRNA levels showed decreased expression at stage II in CA1, CA2, olfactory tubercle and medial mammillary nucleus, and increased at stage V in CA1 and CA2 cells.  

Similarly, MD had no effect on occ1/Frp mRNA expression level in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of mice. In addition, the extirpation of the cochlear or olfactory epithelium had no effect on occ1/Frp mRNA expression in either the cochlear nucleus or the olfactory bulb in mice.  

Here we have characterized the activity generated in the olfactory or piriform cortex and endopiriform nucleus (piriform network).  

MLR excitatory inputs to reticulospinal cells in the middle (MRRN) are larger than those in the posterior rhombencephalic reticular nucleus (PRRN).  

Results show that MR rats that acquire a later maternal experience show increases in cell survival in parts of the excitatory limb of the maternal neural network (bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and nucleus accumbens), but no changes in the inhibitory limb (amygdala).  

In the dorsal part of the anterior olfactory nucleus chronic stress blocked the decrease in oxidative activity evoked by PCA.  

In the present study in estrogen-progesterone primed ovariectomized female rats, we examined the expression of a preference for male odors and male odor-induced Fos immunoreactivity throughout the vomeronasal projection pathway and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), using both sexually experienced and sexually naive subjects. Significant increment of Fos expression in the posterior-dorsal medial amygdala (MePD) and the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) in forebrain, as well as the accessory olfactory bulb, was observed in both groups of subjects.  

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The greatest number of galanin-immunoreactive neurons were identified in the medial part of the central nucleus and in the dorsal part of the medial nucleus. GAL-immunoreactive fibers were identified in the medial nucleus, "bed nucleus" of the accessory olfactory tract, fiontal cortical nucleus, amygdalo-hippocampal area and basolateral nucleus. VIP-immunoreactive neurons were diffusely distributed in more nuclei than the previous, mostly in the lateral, basolateral, and basomedial nucleus. VIP-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the lateral part oJ'the central nucleus, while long and radially oriented fibers were present in the frontal and dorsal cortical nucleus. CONCLUSION: By distribution analysis of GAL and VIP immunoreactive neurons and fibers, and according to literature data, it can be assumed that the medial part of the central nucleus receives VIP fibers from other parts of the amygdaloid body, and then sends GAL fibers to the medial nucleus..  

TMC asymmetry 1) was generated in strict relation with cystitis, and was absent in disease-free and mesna-treated animals, 2) was restricted to the anterior portion of the paraventricular pars anterior and reuniens nuclei subregion, i.e., the rostralmost part of the paraventricular thalamic nucleus, the only thalamic area associated with viscero-vagal and somatic inputs, via the nucleus of the solitary tract, and via the medial contingent of the spinothalamic tract, respectively, and 3) originated from somatic tissues, i.e., the abdominal wall where bladder inflammation generates secondary somatic hyperesthesia leading to referred pain in humans.  

However, a different pattern of NPY immunoreactivity was observed in the neurons of nucleus entopeduncularis (NE) and nucleus preopticus periventricularis (NPP).  

Increased cell proliferation in the epithelium partially restored the OSN population, and by 8 weeks, new P2 axons distributed within diverse locations in the bulb remnant and within the anterior olfactory nucleus.  

Similar experiments with dextran amines in the olfactory bulbs plus FluoroGold in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis indicate that neurons projecting through the stria terminalis could be integrating olfactory and vomeronasal inputs. While both inputs clearly converge in areas classically considered olfactory-recipient (nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus, and cortex-amygdala transition zone) or vomeronasal-recipient (ventral anterior amygdala, bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract, and anteroventral medial amygdaloid nucleus), segregation is virtually complete at posterior levels such as the posteromedial and posterolateral cortical amygdalae.  

TPD (a strong odorant) induced activity in the subthalamic nucleus in the left hemisphere and the precentral gyrus (BA 6) and insula in the right hemisphere.  

Increased swelling was found in gracile tract, gracile nucleus and dorsal roots but not in lateral columns, olfactory bulb, motor cortex, ventral roots or peripheral nerve.  

Staining was identified in the olfactory glomeruli, pallium and subpallium of the telencephalon; epithalamus, thalamus, preoptic area, and hypothalamus of the diencephalon; pretectal area, optic tectum, torus semicircularis, and tegmentum of the mesencephalon; all layers of the cerebellum; reticular formation; nucleus of the solitary tract, octaval nuclei, and dorsal column nuclei of the medulla; and dorsal and motor fields of the spinal cord. NOS ICC was also more sensitive for motor neurons and consistently labeled them in the vagus nucleus and along the length of the rostral spinal cord.  

RESULTS: All three transporters showed strong expression in the external plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb and in olfactory nerve, the molecular layer and neuronal processes of input fibres extending vertically in motor cortex, in the dendritic arborization of the cornu ammonis and dendate gyrus (hippocampus), neuronal processes in the arcuate nucleus (hypothalamus), choroid plexus cells, and neuronal cell bodies and dendrites of cranial nerve nuclei V and VII.  

Present experiments suggest that dopaminergic neurons localized in the posteromedial ventral tegmental area (VTA) and central linear nucleus raphe selectively project to the ventromedial striatum (medial olfactory tubercle and medial nucleus accumbens shell), whereas the anteromedial VTA has few if any projections to the ventral striatum, and the lateral VTA largely projects to the ventrolateral striatum (accumbens core, lateral shell and lateral tubercle). Drugs such as nicotine and opiates are more rewarding when administered into the posterior VTA or the central linear nucleus than into the anterior VTA. A review of the literature suggests that (1) the midbrain has corresponding zones for the accumbens core and medial shell; (2) the striatal portion of the olfactory tubercle is a ventral extension of the nucleus accumbens shell; and (3) a model of two dopamine projection systems from the ventral midbrain to the ventral striatum is useful for understanding reward function.  

Five areas of the olfactory pathway were examined by immunolabelling for alpha-synuclein - a major component of Lewy pathology: the olfactory tract/bulb (n = 79), the anterior olfactory nucleus in the lateral olfactory gyrus (n = 193), the region of olfactory projection to the orbito-frontal cortex (n = 225), the hippocampus (n = 236) and the amygdala (n = 201).  

Additionally, an important increase in retrogradely-labeled neurons was detected in the ipsilateral anterior olfactory nucleus of the mutant animals. These results point to an important reorganization of this essential olfactory circuit between the anterior olfactory nucleus and the OB, and hint at a transsynaptic level of plasticity not considered previously in literature..  

High densities of 26RFa binding sites were observed in olfactory, hypothalamic, and brainstem nuclei involved in the control of feeding behavior, including the piriform cortex, the ventromedial and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei, the paraventricular nucleus, the arcuate nucleus, the lateral hypothalamic area, and the nucleus of the solitary tract. A high density of 26RFa binding sites was detected in regions of the CNS involved in the processing of pain, such as the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and the parafascicular thalamic nucleus.  

Some areas related to the motor system, such as the caudate putamen, Purkinje cells, inferior olivary nucleus and cerebellar nuclei expressed PRMT8 mRNA strongly.  

Interestingly, males that ejaculated two or four times had similar c-Fos densities in all the evaluated brain regions, except for the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Sexual activity (evidenced in males that ejaculated two or four times) increased c-Fos levels in the anteromedial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, claustrum, entorhinal cortex, medial preoptic area, nucleus accumbens core, suprachiasmatic nucleus and supraoptic nucleus; however, sexual satiety did not modify c-Fos expression in these regions.  

They were found throughout the brain, with the following regions being of particular interest: the granular cell layer of the olfactory bulb, the nucleus of the anterior commissure, the septum, the lateral and medial pallia, the striatum, the nucleus of the postoptic commissure, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and pretectal areas, the optic tectum, the torus semicircularis, the mesencephalic tegmentum, restricted regions of the rhombencephalic tegmentum, the octavolateral area, and the dorsal column nucleus.  

Increased CRF immunoreactivity was also detected in swollen axons in subcortical white matter, caudate nucleus and lateral olfactory tract of the ipsilateral hemisphere, consistent with the failure of axonal transport.  

This hypothesis was tested with grafted implantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) along the cochlear nucleus in the adult host followed by an augmented acoustic stimulation. NPCs were obtained from the olfactory bulbs at embryonic day 14-16 and were transplanted into the inside border of cochlear nucleus.  

These data suggest that OB neurons are selectively excited by combinations of molecular features found on the side-chain and along the steroid nucleus of bile salt molecules..  

Neural activity was recorded from the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus of behaving rats during the discrimination of olfactory cues associated with or without a reward.  

However, only the central nucleus of amygdale takes up DaTSCAN, whereas central, lateral and basolateral amygdaloid nuclei express BN receptors.  

Fifteen days following surgery, prepro-neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA levels were significantly increased in the hypothalamus of bulbectomized OM rats and in the medial nucleus of the amygdala of bulbectomized OM and S5B/Pl rats. OBX decreased NPY Y2 receptor mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and medial nucleus of the amygdala in OM rats, while increasing NPY Y2 receptor mRNA levels in the medial nucleus of the amygdala of S5B/Pl rats.  

Injections of dextran-amines, Fluoro Gold, cholera toxin-B subunit and Fast Blue were delivered to the anterior and posterior accessory olfactory bulb, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, dorsal anterior amygdala and bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract/anteroventral medial amygdaloid nucleus. We have demonstrated that, apart from common vomeronasal-recipient areas, only the anterior accessory olfactory bulb projects to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial division, posteromedial part, and only the posterior accessory olfactory bulb projects to the dorsal anterior amygdala and deep cell layers of the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract and the anteroventral medial amygdaloid nucleus.  

To identify the mechanism of these changes during lipolysis, we examined the role of autonomic blockers and bilateral lesions of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the modification of plasma glycerol in rats exposed to SGFO and SLVO.  

Within the diencephalon high density of positive cells was found in mediodorsal and lateral posterior thalamic nuclei and medial habenular nucleus (MHb). In the hypothalamus, high density of CTLA-2alpha mRNA labeling was seen in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (Sch), optic tract, arcuate nucleus, and median eminence. The fasciculus retroflexus and its termination in the mesencephalic interpeduncular nucleus were also densely labeled. Other mesencephalic expression sites were the superior colliculus, periaqueductal gray, paramedian raphe nucleus, and inferior colliculus.  

Anatomical tracing showed that the anterior thalamic nucleus innervates the anterior parts of the medial, dorsal, and lateral pallia and the rostralmost part of the pallium in addition to the subpallial amygdala/ventral pallidum region.  

During task performance, we recorded multi-single units and local field potentials (LFPs) simultaneously from the rats' olfactory cortex (specifically, the posterior piriform cortex) and from cortical and subcortical motor sites (the caudal forepaw M1, and the magnocellular red nucleus, respectively).  

Here, the efferents of the rostral linear nucleus (RLi), a midline VTA component, were traced in rats with the Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) technique. The RLi also sends substantial projections to the magnocellular preoptic nucleus, lateral hypothalamus, central division of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, lateral part of the lateral habenula and supraoculomotor region, and light projections to the prefrontal cortex, basolateral amygdala, and dorsal raphe nucleus. Overall, the data suggest that the RLi is a distinct VTA component in that it projects primarily to pallidal regions of the olfactory tubercle and to their diencephalic targets, the central division of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and the lateral part of the lateral habenula. By being connected to the central division of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (directly and via ventral striatopallidal system) and to the magnocellular preoptic nucleus, the RLi and its surroundings may play a role in olfactory-guided behaviors, which are part of the approach responses associated with appetitive motivational states..  

The rostral pallium receiving the bulk of dorsal thalamic afferents has reciprocal connections with all other pallial areas and projects to the septum, nucleus accumbens, and anterior dorsal striatum. The medial pallium projects bilaterally to the medial pallium, septum, nucleus accumbens, mediocentral amygdala, and hypothalamus and ipsilaterally to the rostral, dorsal, and lateral pallium. The dorsal pallium has only ipsilateral projections running to the rostral, medial, and lateral pallium; septum; nucleus accumbens; and eminentia thalami.  

PURPOSE: A lesion of the noradrenergic nucleus Locus Coeruleus (LC) converts sporadic seizures evoked by microinfusion of bicuculline into the anterior piriform cortex (APC) of rats into limbic status epilepticus (SE).  

Following acquisition of ODLS, animals were lesioned bilaterally in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nBM) using either quisqualic acid (QUIS) or 192 IgG-saporin (SAP).  

Importantly, expression of dopamine receptor D2 in E18.5 Raldh3(-/-) embryos was essentially eliminated in the developing nucleus accumbens, a tissue lying close to the source of RA provided by Raldh3.  

Neurochemical determination of dopamine and dopamine metabolite levels in striatum, nucleus accumbens and substantia nigra showed that ci3 rats have a significant asymmetry in striatal dopamine in that dopamine levels were significantly lower in the hemisphere contralateral to the preferred direction of turning. A significant decrease in D3 binding was seen in the shell of the nucleus accumbens, the islands of Calleja, and the subependymal zone of ci3 mutant rats. Furthermore, a significant laterality in D3 binding was determined in ci3 rats in that binding was lower in the contralateral hemisphere in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and the islands of Calleja.  

In addition, from the 8-day embryonic stage, another response area was discriminated within the forebrain, which corresponded to the higher-ordered nucleus of the olfactory pathway.  

Electrolytic lesions of the mouse hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) eliminated changes in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), BP and GVNA induced by either SGFO or SLVO.  

In addition, another particular subpopulation of NOS positive neurons with no or little CCK immunoreactivity appeared to project to areas covering the dorsal endopiriform nucleus, claustrum and insular cortex.  

Although the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is known to regulate a wide range of circadian behaviors, the role for intrinsic rhythmicity in other tissues is unknown.  

Moreover bulbectomy reduced open field-induced cFOS expression in the basal nucleus of the stria terminalis while concurrently increasing expression in the hippocampus, amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and dorsal raphe nucleus.  

Efferent PNS pathways, consisting of central dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and peripheral pancreatic neurons, stimulate exocrine secretion.  

However, how the activation of a cohort of narrowly tuned mitral cells by odor mixtures is read out synaptically by neurons in higher-level olfactory structures, such as the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), is mostly unknown.  

In the Am proper, a condensation of deeply stained cells occurred in the lateral amygdaloid nucleus. In the basolateral nucleus, the strongly NADPHd-positive neurons were few, and were located mainly along the lateral border of the nucleus. The basomedial nucleus contained numerous positive cells but most of them were only lightly labeled. A moderate number of strongly stained neurons appeared in the medial division of the central nucleus, and a larger accumulation of strongly positive cells was present in the lateral and the capsular divisions. The medial amygdaloid nucleus contained numerous moderately stained neurons and displayed the strongest diffuse neuropil staining in Am. In the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, the first layer contained only NADPHd-stained axons, in the second layer, there were numerous moderately stained cells, and in the third layer, a few but deeply stained neurons. From the cortical nuclei, the most appreciable number of stained neurons was seen in the anterior cortical nucleus. The intercalated amygdaloid nucleus lacked NADPHd-positive neurons but an appreciable plexus of fine, tortuous axons was present. In the intra-amygdaloid part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (st) some lightly stained cells were seen but along the entire course of st strongly stained neurons were observed. Some Am nuclei, and especially the central lateral nucleus and the intercalated nucleus, display considerable species differences when compared with the primate Am.  

Bulbectomy also induced neuronal degeneration, visualized by incorporation of Fluoro-Jade B, in the piriform cortex and the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus (PLCo).  

In addition, from E70-130 VMAT2 and SERT were observed in all the sensory cranial nerves, the olfactory nerve, the gustatory, the trigeminal, the auditory fibers, in the retinal ganglion cells, and the optic tract up to the lateral geniculate nucleus and the superior colliculus.  

Of the cell bodies in the cortical areas about 82% were located in multisensory cortex, viz., the dorsoposterior and ventroposterior, posterior parietal cortex, the claustrum, and the endopiriform nucleus, 10% were located in the primary somatosensory cortex (hindlimb and trunk region), and 8% in secondary visual cortex. At subcortical levels, we observed a similar correspondence of retrogradely labeled cells and anterogradely labeled axons and terminals in visual (posterior limitans thalamic nucleus) and multisensory thalamic nuclei (dorsal and medial division of the medial geniculate body, suprageniculate nucleus, posterior thalamic cell group, zona incerta), and in the multisensory nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus. Retrograde, but not anterograde, labeling was found in the multisensory pontine reticular formation, particularly in the reticulotegmental nucleus of the pons. Conversely, anterograde, but no retrograde, labeling was found in the visual laterodorsal and lateroposterior thalamic nuclei, in the multisensory peripeduncular, posterior intralaminar, and reticular thalamic nuclei, as well as in the multisensory superior and pericentral inferior colliculi (including cuneiform and sagulum nucleus), pontine nuclei, and periaqueductal gray.  

Post-training opioid receptor antagonism (odor aversion) prevented the learning-induced changes in the anterior piriform cortex and also induced significant changes in Fos protein expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala.  

Y2R-positive processes were located in many brain regions, including the olfactory bulb, some cortical areas, septum, basal forebrain, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, substantia nigra compacta, locus coeruleus, and solitary tract nucleus. The densest distributions of cell bodies were located in the septum basal forebrain, including the bed nucleus, and amygdala, with lower density in the anterior olfactory nucleus, nucleus accumbens, caudal striatum, CA1, CA2, and CA3 hippocampal fields, preoptic nuclei lateral hypothalamus, and A13 DA cells.  

However, 5alpha-R type I and 3alpha-HSD are significantly expressed in principal GABAergic output neurons, such as striatal medium spiny, reticular thalamic nucleus, and cerebellar Purkinje neurons.  

The compact division of the posterior pallial amygdala (PoAc) and lateral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTL) are components of the limbic system in the pigeon brain. BSTL also connects reciprocally with two main regions: 1) the same continuum as for PoAc projections, except the piriform cortex and 2) rostral areas of the hemisphere, including the olfactory tubercle and nucleus accumbens. Extratelencephalic reciprocal connections are with the substantia nigra, nucleus subceruleus dorsalis, parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract.  

The anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) lies between the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex and is the first bilaterally innervated structure in the olfactory system.  

Finally, female urinary odors induced Fos in the nucleus accumbens core of VNOi males but not of VNOx males.  

Major NPFF-ir cell groups were observed in the diagonal band nucleus of Broca, hypothalamus, and dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Additional cells were found in the anterior olfactory nucleus, lateral and dorsal cortices, dorsolateral septum, and diencephalic intergeniculate leaflet formation. Dense plexuses of NPFF-ir fibers were identified in the diagonal band nucleus of Broca, septum, preoptic and hypothalamic areas, isthmic region, ventrolateral tegmentum, solitary tract nucleus, and dorsolateral funiculus of the spinal cord. Extensive fiber staining also occurred in the nucleus accumbens and the midbrain tectum.  

Sex differences were found in: (a) the number of mitral, and dark and light granule cells (female > male) of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB); (b) the medial amygdala (Me) and its dorsal (Med) and ventral (Mev) subdivisions, males showing greater values than females in volume and number of neurons, while in the posteromedial cortical amygdala (PMCo or C(3)), females show greater density of neurons than males and (c) the posteromedial division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTMP) in which males have more neurons than females. No sex differences were seen in the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) and the LC.  

Lesions of the amygdala have long been known to produce hyperphagia and obesity in cats, dogs, and monkeys, but only recently have studies with rats determined that the effective site is the posterodorsal amygdala (PDA)-the posterodorsal medial amygdaloid nucleus and the intra-amygdaloid bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

Similar to the rat there was also substantial projections from the lateral posterior-pulvinar complex and the ventral posterior nucleus.  

The magnocellular medial preoptic nucleus plays a crucial role in the regulation of male sexual behavior in Syrian hamsters. Histological and behavioral studies suggest that the magnocellular medial preoptic nucleus regulates male mating behavior by integrating chemosensory and hormonal signals. The present study is the first to systematically identify the afferent connections of the magnocellular medial preoptic nucleus by tracing the uptake of cholera toxin B from deposits in the magnocellular medial preoptic nucleus of adult male Syrian hamsters. Our findings indicate that the magnocellular medial preoptic nucleus receives 1) chemosensory input from areas in the main and accessory olfactory pathways including the posterior medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, anterior medial, anterior cortical and posterior cortical nuclei of the amygdala; 2) input from steroid responsive structures such as the posterior medial nucleus of the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral septum, anteroventral periventricular nucleus, medial preoptic nucleus, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and arcuate nucleus; 3) input from structures in the brainstem such as the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus, peripeduncular nucleus and the premamillary nucleus in the hypothalamus that carry sensory information from the genitalia. The major afferent input to the magnocellular medial preoptic nucleus was confirmed by injecting anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine into the anterior medical nucleus of the amygdala, the posterodorsal part of the medial nucleus of the amygdala, the posteromedial part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the posterointermediate part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Our results support the hypothesis that the magnocellular medial preoptic nucleus is part of the chemosensory pathway that receives chemosensory and hormonal input to regulate mating behavior and suggest that the magnocellular medial preoptic nucleus may utilize information from the genitalia to regulate male mating behavior..  

Afferents to the subpallium originate from the olfactory bulbs, preoptic area, thalamus, posterior tuberculum, hypothalamus, secondary gustatory nucleus, and raphe nuclei.  

The neural pathways indicate that the hippocampal formation plays a central role in the limbic system, which also includes the dorsolateral corticoid area, nucleus taeniae of the amygdala, posterior pallial amygdala, septum, medial part of the anterior dorsolateral nucleus of the thalamus, and the lateral mammillary nucleus.  

Studies have shown that female odors induce Fos expression in various brain nuclei of conspecific males, including the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV).  

This migration consists of a repeating of three distinct phases: neurite outgrowth, movement of the centrosome into the leading process, and translocation of the nucleus towards the centrosome. Our findings suggest that activation of cell polarity signaling and positioning of the centrosome ahead of the nucleus are important steps in repolarization in response to guidance cues..  

Impressive enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 immunoreactivity was localized in anterior olfactory nucleus, tenia tecta, nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, piriform cortex, lateral and basolateral amygdala, orbital frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens (shell) and associated areas of ventral striatum, entorhinal cortex, dentate gyrus granule cells and hilar neurons, hippocampal CA subfields and subiculum.  

In comparison with the control group, the male or its odor significantly increases Fos neuronal expression in the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, anterior olfactory nucleus, cortical and basal amygdala, dentate gyrus, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, piriform and orbitofrontal cortices.  

(5) Individual nuclei begin to be detectable at stages 17-21, the central nucleus at stage 23 and the lateral nucleus shortly thereafter. (7) The lateral eminence, which is telencephalic, contributes to the cortical nucleus at stage 18. (8) The primordial plexiform layer develops independently of the cortical nucleus. Although the nucleus accumbens also appears relatively early (stage 19), connections between it and the amygdaloid complex are not evident during the embryonic period.  

In the diencephalon, intensive staining was found in the nucleus of Bellonci, the dorsal habenula, the lateral and central thalamic nuclei, and the subependymal zone of the third ventricle. The PN was especially intensively stained around the perikarya of the toral nuclei, the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei, and the basal optic nucleus.  

We have seen fiber labeling in the retinorecipient suprachiasmatic nucleus and in the primary visual center, the lateral geniculate body, but labeled nerve cell bodies in these structures were never seen.  

The results indicated that while the binding of 125I-sulpride to DA-2 receptors was higher in the nucleus accumbens (shell) and ventral tegmental area, it was lower in the nucleus accumbens (core), caudate putamen and hypothalamus in Wistar-Kyoto compared to Wistar rats. In contrast, the binding of 125I-sulpride to DA-3 receptors was higher in the caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens (shell and core) and islands of Calleja in Wistar-Kyoto compared to Wistar rats.  

In the present study, we hypothesized that the nucleus accumbens and caudate/putamen might be major targets for antidepressant effects. Thus, we focused on G(olf) protein, a stimulant alpha-subunit of G protein that is coupled with the dopamine D1 receptor and specifically expressed in the striatum (nucleus accumbens, caudate/putamen and olfactory tubercle) in the rat brain.  

Chronic in vivo treatment with testosterone increased TH mRNA specifically in the periglomerular area of the olfactory bulbs and in the nucleus preopticus anteroventralis (NPOav). NPOav was labeled with 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindicarbocyanine perchlorate, showing that this nucleus is hypophysiotropic in the eel.  

The cyto- and chemoarchitecture of the anterior olfactory nucleus and piriform cortex of the short-beaked echidna and platypus were studied to determine: (1) if these areas contain chemically distinct subdivisions, and (2) if the chemoarchitecture of those cortical olfactory regions differs from therians. In the echidna, the anterior olfactory nucleus is negligible in extent and merges at very rostral levels with a four-layered piriform cortex. By contrast, the platypus had a distinct anterior olfactory nucleus and a three-layered piriform cortex with no evidence of chemically distinct subregions within the piriform cortex.  

Dopamine D1 receptor binding was decreased in the caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle and ventral pallidum of D2 receptor knockout mice. All dopamine receptor knockout mice examined exhibited increased A2A receptor binding in the caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle.  

Finally, bilateral lesions of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) eliminated RSNA and BP suppression and the elevation of GVNA due to SLVO or linalool.  

Among the regions displaying the most intense labelling were the olfactory tubercle, lateral septum (LS), caudate putamen (Cpu), central amygdaloid nucleus (Ce), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SO), lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), lateral reticular nucleus (LRt) and solitary tract nucleus (NTS). In the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (Arc), double-labelling in situ hybridisation revealed that prodynorphin expressing neurons also contained NPY mRNA, with a co-localisation rate of approximately 88% in the lateral part of the Arc, and 79% in the dorsal part of the Arc, respectively, suggesting potential overlapping functions of these two neurotransmitters in feeding type behaviour..  

In particular, a strong hybridization signal was observed in the olfactory system, hippocampus, olfactory and medial amygdala, hypothalamus, epithalamus, several tegmental nuclei, locus coeruleus, pontine nuclei, motor nuclei, nucleus of the solitary tract, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, inferior olive, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Autoradiographic labeling of brain slices with radioiodinated UII showed the presence of UII-binding sites in the lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial amygdaloid nucleus, anteroventral thalamus, anterior pretectal nucleus, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, pontine nuclei, geniculate nuclei, parabigeminal nucleus, dorsal endopiriform nucleus, and cerebellar cortex. Intense expression of the GPR14 gene in some hypothalamic nuclei (supraoptic, paraventricular, ventromedian, and arcuate nuclei), in limbic structures (amygdala and hippocampus), in medullary nuclei (solitary tract, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus), and in motor control regions (cerebral and cerebellar cortex, substantia nigra, pontine nuclei) provides the anatomical substrate for the central effects of UII on behavioral, cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and motor functions.  

Labeling of CB1 mRNA in the telencephalon was observed in the olfactory bulb and all areas of the pallium, as well as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and nucleus amygdalae dorsolateralis. A notable difference in CB1 labeling between this amphibian and mammals is the abundance of labeling in areas associated with olfaction (anterior olfactory nuclei, nucleus amygdalae dorsolateralis, and lateral pallium), which hints that endocannabinoids might modulate responses to odors as well as pheromones.  

Close topographical location of GnRH-immunoreactive neurons and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive in the area of nucleus accumbens on days 17 and 20, as well as in the median eminence on day 20.  

Immunohistological methods for visualizing Fos protein have been shown that in sexually experienced male rats, estrous odors activate brain areas throughout the vomeronasal projection pathway (VN pathway) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). These results suggested that sexual experience is required for the estrous odor-induced activation of more central portions of the VN pathway, such as the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and the NAcc.  

In order to investigate this hypothesis, field potential signals induced in anesthetized rats by electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb or the entorhinal cortex were recorded simultaneously in the piriform cortex (anterior part and posterior part) and the amygdala (basolateral nucleus and cortical nucleus). Paired-pulse stimulation of the entorhinal cortex mainly resulted in inhibition for the shortest interval duration (20 ms) in anterior piriform cortex, posterior piriform cortex and amygdala basolateral but not cortical nucleus. For short interpulse intervals (20 ms) heterosynaptic inhibition was observed in anterior piriform cortex, posterior piriform cortex and amygdala basolateral but not cortical nucleus. The level of inhibition was greater in the basolateral nucleus than in the other structures. Taken together these data suggest that the entorhinal cortex exerts a main inhibitory effect on the olfactory input via the amygdala basolateral nucleus and to a lesser extent the piriform cortex.  

Immunohistochemical analysis of the rat brain shows a prominent localization of palmdelphin in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, septum, indusium griseum, piriform cortex, nucleus supraopticus, and nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract.  

Retrograde tracers restricted to the anterior olfactory nucleus resulted in labelled neurons in the rostral portion of the upper bank and fundus of superior temporal sulcus. Injections of biotinylated dextran-amine at the fundus and upper bank of the superior temporal sulcus confirmed this projection by labelling axons in the dorsal and lateral portions of the anterior olfactory nucleus, as well as piriform, periamygdaloid and entorhinal cortices. Retrograde tracer injections at the rostral superior temporal sulcus resulted in neuronal labelling in the anterior olfactory nucleus, piriform, periamygdaloid and entorhinal cortices, thus providing confirmation of the reciprocity between primary olfactory structures and the cortex at the rostral superior temporal sulcus.  

While portions of the mammalian olfactory system have been studied extensively, the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) has been relatively ignored.  

The nucleus accumbens is thought to subserve different aspects of adaptive and emotional behaviors. The anatomical substrates for such actions are multiple, parallel ventral striatopallidal output circuits originating in the nucleus accumbens shell and core subregions. While such neurons are GABAergic, the intrastriatal projection patterns indicate the existence of lateral inhibitory interactions within, as well as between, shell and core subregions of the nucleus accumbens..  

In other regions, immunoreactive cells are moderately stained (i.e., magnocellular nucleus of the posterior commissure, amygdaloid nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, lateral periaqueductal gray) or weakly stained (i.e., vascular organ of the lamina terminalis, hippocampus, inferior colliculus, reticular nucleus).  

Using a rat brain slice preparation, we conducted whole-cell recordings on pyramidal neurons of the periamygdaloid cortex and the anterior cortical nucleus, two structures receiving direct connections from the olfactory bulb. Upon depolarization by current injection through the recording electrode, a fraction of periamygdaloid cortex and most anterior cortical nucleus layer II pyramidal neurons displayed an intermittent discharge pattern, where clusters of action potentials were interspersed by periods of membrane potential subthreshold oscillations.  

The highest density of 5-hydroxytryptamine immunoreactive fibers is observed in the central nucleus, the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, the paralaminar nucleus, the anterior amygdaloid area and a small region of the amygdalohippocampal area.  

The entire amygdaloid complex was outlined and then further partitioned into five reliably defined subdivisions: 1) the lateral nucleus, 2) the basal nucleus, 3) the accessory basal nucleus, 4) the central nucleus, and 5) the remaining nuclei (including anterior cortical, anterior amygdaloid area, periamygdaloid cortex, medial, posterior cortical, nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, amygdalohippocampal area, and intercalated nuclei). The mean number of neurons (x 10(6)) for each region was as follows: lateral nucleus 4.00, basal nucleus 3.24, accessory basal nucleus 1.28, central nucleus 0.36, remaining nuclei 3.33, and total amygdaloid complex 12.21.  

Increments in Fos immunoreactivity neurons were seen in structures of the accessory olfactory system after exposure to soiled estrous bedding [ granular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb, anterior-dorsal medial amygdala, posterior-dorsal medial amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis].  

Congruent distribution patterns of Tac2 mRNA and NKB were found in many nuclei of the thalamus and hypothalamus (habenula, anterodorsal nucleus, preoptic area, arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus). However, mice expressed Tac2 mRNA neither in the hippocampus nor in the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, in contrast to rats.  

In both 3-week- and 1-year-old rats, RGS9 is expressed abundantly in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, and olfactory tubercle. Quantitative analysis showed that the intensities of RGS9 expression in 1-year-old rats are higher than those in the 3-week-old rats in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, periaqueductal gray, and gray matter of the spinal cord.  

The olfactostriatum is a portion of the basal ganglia of snakes situated ventromedially to the nucleus accumbens proper. It receives a major vomeronasal input from the nucleus sphericus, the primary target of accessory olfactory bulb efferents. In contrast to the nucleus accumbens proper, the olfactostriatum is densely immunoreactive for serotonin and neuropeptide Y and sparsely immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase. The nucleus accumbens proper and the olfactostriatum share most afferent connections except those originating in the nucleus sphericus, which are exclusively directed to the olfactostriatum. Similarly, the nucleus accumbens proper and the olfactostriatum show a similar pattern of efferent connections including those going to the ventral pallidum, although the olfactostriatum alone projects to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as some amygdaloid nuclei. On the basis of its chemoarchitecture, the olfactostriatum resembles the mammalian ventral pallidum (but also the shell of the nucleus accumbens). Its connections, however, suggests that the olfactostriatum could be a specialized portion of the shell of nucleus accumbens extended more ventromedially than previously believed and devoted to processing vomeronasal information.  

Our findings suggest the existence of a central amygdala-bed nucleus of the stria terminalis complex in the caudal mid-ventral telencephalon, a vomeronasal amygdala in the caudolateral ventral telencephalon, an olfactory amygdala in the caudal pole of the telencephalon lateral of the vomeronasal amygdala, and a ventromedially situated "medial" amygdala, which is assumed to be functionally equivalent to the basolateral amygdala of mammals. A ventromedial cellular column forms a nucleus accumbens rostrally and continues caudally into a shell-like ventral pallidum.  

TH-immunoreactivity in the lateral region of the striatum was far weaker than that in the medial region or in the nucleus accumbens.  

Significantly, CB1 cannabinoid receptor-like immunoreactivity was localized to cholinergic perikarya in the magnocellular basal nucleus.  

Additionally, increased Fos expression was measured in the main olfactory bulb and the piriform cortex, whereas no signs of activation were seen in the cortical nucleus of the amygdala, all components of the main olfactory system.  

Both are targeted by the olfactory bulb, the piriform, posterior agranular insular and perirhinal cortices, the ventral tegmental area, dorsal raphe nucleus, and locus coeruleus. The APir receives robust projections from structures affiliated with the EAc, including the anterior basomedial and posterior basolateral amygdaloid nuclei, the gustatory thalamic region, parasubthalamic nucleus, and parabrachial area. The Entl is a major recipient for amygdaloid projections from the medial part of the lateral nucleus and the caudomedial part of the basolateral nucleus. Moreover, the medial septum, subicular complex, nucleus reuniens, supramammillary region, and nucleus incertus, which are associated with the hippocampal system, preferentially innervate the Entl.  

Cells expressing AP-2 were predominantly differentiated neurons and were abundant in the solitary tract nucleus, hypoglossal nucleus, locus coeruleus, cerebellar molecular layer, superior colliculus, mitral cell layers of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, and in some divisions of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Sexually dimorphic expression of AP-2 was seen in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, a forebrain region required for regulation of gender-specific reproductive and social behaviors. In males, AP-2 expressing neurons were present in supracapsular, lateral ventral, and medial ventral divisions of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. With the exception of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, forebrain regions generally lacked cells with high levels of AP-2.  

The nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract could not be definitively identified and the medial nucleus of amygdala appeared to be very small in the echidna. Calbindin immunoreactive neurons were most frequently found in the ventrolateral part of the lateral nucleus, intraamygdaloid parts of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the lateral part of the central nucleus.  

We first report CGRP terminal fields in the olfactory-anterior septal region and also CGRP projections from the parabrachial nuclei to the olfactory-anterior septal region, the medial prefrontal cortex, the interstitial nucleus of the anterior commissure, the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, the anterior amygdaloid area, the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus, and the dorsolateral part of the lateral amygdaloid nucleus.  

Rostrocaudal lesions, between piriform cortex layers I and II, or layer III and endopiriform nucleus in adult or immature slices did not influence oxotremorine-M effects; however, the slow afterdepolarization in adult (but not immature) lesioned slices was abolished.  

The results demonstrate that: (1) the GnRH neuronal populations in the forebrain (salmon and sea bream GAPs; sGAP and sbGAP, respectively) show an overlapping pattern along the olfactory bulbs, nucleus olfacto-retinalis, ventral telencephalon, and preoptic area; (2) projections with sGAP are mainly located in the forebrain and contribute to the pituitary innervation, with projections containing chicken GAP II being mainly distributed along the mid and hindbrain and not contributing to pituitary innervation, whereas sbGAP projections are restricted to the ventral forebrain, being the most important molecular form in relation to pituitary innervation; (3) sbGnRH (GnRH I) neurons have an olfactory origin; (4) GAP antibodies and GAP riboprobes are valuable tools for the study of various GnRH systems, by avoiding the cross-reactivity problems that occur when using GnRH antibodies and GnRH riboprobes alone..  

The highest levels of galanin expression were observed in the forebrain structures (the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, throughout the cortex, granular and pyramidal cell layers of the hippocampus), in the mesencephalon (nucleus ruber), in the cerebellum (lateral cerebellar nucleus), in the pons (sensory and motor nuclei of the trigeminal nerve), within the medulla oblongata (facial, prepositus and spinal trigeminal nuclei).  

Maximal percentages of stimulation over basal levels were found in the anterior olfactory nucleus and in the lateral olfactory tract nucleus ( approximately 54%). High levels of stimulation were recorded in diverse hypothalamic nuclei (16-28%), in the amygdala (central amygdaloid nucleus, 40%), in the spinal trigeminal tract (23%) and in layers 1-2 of the spinal cord (26%). Moderate binding stimulation (5-13%) was observed in thalamus, substantia nigra pars compacta, parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe nucleus.  

Activation of MAPK was particularly evident in the nucleus and dendrites of granule cells.  

Film autoradiograms showed intense GAD65 labeling in many structures of the basal telencephalon, such as the medial and lateral striatum, the septum, the olfactory tubercle, the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the intrapeduncular nucleus, while the pallial telencephalon showed only a low level of labeling. Prominent labeling was also evident in the nucleus taeniae and subpallial amygdala, but not in the arcopallium in film autoradiograms. Additional subtelencephalic cell groups showing prominent labeling included the thalamic reticular nucleus and ventral lateral geniculate nucleus of the diencephalon, the nucleus pretectalis, subpretectalis and spiriformis lateralis of the pretectum, and the magnocellular isthmic nucleus of the optic lobe.  

Unlike the CA1 and the subiculum the dentate gyrus did not project to the accumbens nucleus.  

The translocation of Bax to mitochondria was demonstrated, as well as the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) translocated into the nucleus.  

ID males, but not females, decreased DA transporter binding in the nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen and substantia nigra by 20-40%. ID males also had a 20-30% reduction in 5-HT transporter binding in several areas (nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, colliculus) while in ID females there was 15-25% increased serotonin transporter binding in the olfactory tubercle, zona incerta, anteroventral thalamic nucleus and vestibular nucleus. Iron deficiency reduced 3H-nisoxetine binding to the NE transporter in locus ceruleus and anteroventral thalamic nucleus in males but not females.  

In the adult brain, mKirre mRNA was highly expressed in the olfactory bulb, the piriform cortex, the cochlear nucleus, and the cerebellum. After birth, we could first observe high expression of mKirre mRNA in the glomerular and mitral layers of the olfactory bulb, the cortical plate of the neocortex, the cochlear nucleus, and the molecular and granule cell layers of the cerebellum.  

Analyses were performed in brain regions that express Pdyn mRNA and/or KOP-R and that might participate in seizure circuitry: the piriform cortex, olfactory tubercle, nucleus accumbens, caudate-putamen, claustrum, dorsal endopiriform nucleus, and cingulate cortex.  

Bex immunoreactivity (ir) was primarily localized to neuronal cells within several regions of the brain, including the olfactory epithelium, bulb, peri/paraventricular nuclei, suprachiasmatic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, median eminence, lateral hypothalamic area, thalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum.  

The olfactostriatum is a portion of the basal ganglia of snakes that receives substantial vomeronasal afferents through projections from the nucleus sphericus. The olfactostriatum projects to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, lateral cortex, septal complex, ventral pallidum, external, ventral anterior and dorsolateral amygdalae, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, preoptic area, lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and raphe nuclei. Tracer injections in the nucleus accumbens proper, a structure closely associated with the olfactostriatum, result in a similar pattern of efferent connections with the exception of those reaching the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, lateral cortex, external, ventral anterior and dorsolateral amygdalae and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These data, therefore, help to characterize the olfactostriatum, an apparently specialized area of the nucleus accumbens. Double labeling experiments after tracer injections in the nucleus sphericus and the lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus demonstrate a pathway between these two structures through the olfactostriatum. Injections in the olfactostriatum and in the medial amygdala show parallel projections to the lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus. Since this hypothalamic nucleus has been previously described as projecting to the hypoglossal nucleus, both, the medial amygdala and the olfactostriatum may mediate vomeronasal influence on tongue-flick behavior..  

Thus, in contrast to untrained rats, 5-HT(1A) receptor expression of autoshaping trained rats was augmented in the tubercule olfactory, septal nucleus, nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, globus pallidus, striate, and parietal (1 and 2), temporal cortex (1 and 3), granular retrosplenial cortex (1), amygdala, and median and dorsal raphe nuclei. In contrast, in the latter group, receptors were decreased in the CA1 area, hypothalamus dorsal, frontal cortex (1 and 3), occipital cortex, cingulate cortex (1 and 2), and cuneiform nucleus.  

In the diencephalon, CDL received efferents from a dorsal region of the medial part of the anterior dorsolateral nucleus of the thalamus, subrotundal nucleus, and internal paramedian nucleus of the thalamus.  

Specifically, structures that were not previously considered to be developmentally linked, the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract and the lateral, basolateral, and basomedial nuclei, all appear to have a common requirement for Pax6.  

HSV-1 strain KH6 infection was further transmitted to the accessory olfactory bulb (first relay), the medial amygdala (second relay), and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the ventromedial hypothalamus (third relay).  

Specifically, strong hybridization signals and immunoreactivity were found in the brainstem, including auditory neurons such as the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body. As has also been shown for Slack, Slick is expressed in the olfactory bulb, red nucleus, facial nucleus, pontine nucleus, oculomotor nucleus, substantia nigra, deep cerebellar nuclei, vestibular nucleus, and the thalamus. These neurons include those of the hippocampal CA1, CA2, and CA3 regions, the dentate gyrus, supraoptic nucleus, hypothalamus, and cortical layers II, III, and V.  

Projections from the anterior frontal cortex, on the other hand, terminated extensively upon the caudate-putamen and also involved the nucleus accumbens and the olfactory tubercle. The entorhinal cortex also projected heavily to the olfactory tubercle but unlike other species it scarcely involved the nucleus accumbens. There were also hints for the presence of a shell-like region in the nucleus accumbens stained with anti-dopamine transporter and NADPh-diaphorase.  

In C57BL/6J and 129OlaHsd mice, [ (125)I]-GAL binding sites were detected throughout the brain, including moderate-high relative densities in the basal ganglia (caudate putamen, nucleus [ n.] accumbens, olfactory tubercle, substantia nigra), limbic regions (septum, bed n.  

The lateral septal complex projects mainly to the medial pallium, limbic regions (e.g., amygdala and nucleus accumbens), and hypothalamic areas but also to sensory nuclei in the diencephalon and midbrain. Furthermore, our data suggest that both the postolfactory eminence and the bed nucleus of the pallial commissure are not part of the septal complex, rather, the postolfactory eminence seems to be comparable to the mammalian primary olfactory cortex, whereas the bed nucleus may be analogous to the mammalian subfornical organ..  

The central and medial septal complex receives direct input from regions of the olfactory bulb and from all other limbic structures of the telencephalon (e.g., amygdalar regions, nucleus accumbens), whereas projections to the lateral septal complex are absent or less extensive. In the diencephalon, the anterior thalamic nucleus provides the main ascending input to all subnuclei of the anuran septum, which can be interpreted as a limbic/associative pathway. The ventromedial thalamic nucleus projects to the medial and lateral septal complex and may thereby transmit multisensory information to the limbic system. Anterior preoptic nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and hypothalamic nuclei innervate the central and lateral septal complex. Noteworthy is the relatively strong projection from the nucleus raphe to the central septal complex, but not to the other septal nuclei..  

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons and MCH-1 receptors (MCH1r) densely populate mesolimbic dopaminergic brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc).  

By combining FISH with fluorescence immunohistochemistry, coexpression of epsilon-sarcoglycan mRNA and tryptophan hydroxylase immunoreactivity was found in the serotonergic (5-HTergic) neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus.  

The olfactostriatum, a portion of the striatal complex of snakes, is the major tertiary vomeronasal structure in the ophidian brain, receiving substantial afferents from the nucleus sphericus, the primary target of accessory olfactory bulb efferents. In addition to afferents from the nucleus sphericus, the olfactostriatum receives inputs from the dorsal and lateral cortices, nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract, external and dorsolateral amygdalae, dorsomedial thalamic nucleus, ventral tegmental area and raphe nuclei. Double labeling experiments demonstrated that the distribution of serotonin and neuropeptide Y in this area almost completely overlaps the terminal field of projections from the nucleus sphericus. These results indicate that the olfactostriatum of snakes could be a portion of the nucleus accumbens, with features characteristic of the accumbens shell, devoted to processing vomeronasal information.  

Increased activity of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and decreased activity of the vasopressin neurons in the biological clock and of the thyroxine-releasing hormone (TRH) neurons in the PVN contribute to the signs and symptoms of depression. In men, the central nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTc) is about twice as large and contains twice as many somatostatin neurons as in women. In postmenopausal women, the neurons of the infundibular nucleus hypertrophy and become hyperactive because of the disappearance of the estrogen feedback and contain hyperactive peptidergic neurons. Climacteric flushes may be caused by hyperactivity of the neurokinin-B or LHRH neurons in this nucleus.  

In the same animals, EFPs were recorded in parallel in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC), posterior piriform cortex (pPC), cortical nucleus of the amygdala (CoA), and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) following electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb.  

In the forebrain galanin was seen in the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, throughout the cortex, in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, claustrum, granular and pyramidal cell layers of the hippocampus, subiculum and presubiculum. Within the hypothalamus, neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus contained galanin. In the mesencephalon, the geniculate nucleus, nucleus ruber, the mesencephalic trigeminal and reticulotegmental nuclei ectopically expressed galanin. Within the medulla oblongata, labeled cells were detected in the facial, ambiguus, prepositus, lateral paragigantocellular and lateral reticular nuclei, and spinal trigeminal nucleus.  

The olfactory bulbs maintain reciprocal connections with several regions of the telencephalon [ ventral nucleus of V (Vv), supracommissural nucleus (Vs), posterior zone of D (Dp), preoptic nucleus], and also project to the diencephalon (posterior tuberal nucleus, posterior hypothalamic lobe). Vv receives afferents from Vs, the dorsal nucleus of V (Vd), the preoptic nucleus, and from several nuclei in the diencephalon and brainstem (suprachiasmatic nucleus, anterior and lateral tuberal nuclei, preglomerular complex, tertiary gustatory nucleus, posterior tubercle, inferior hypothalamic lobes, thalamus, torus semicircularis, secondary gustatory nucleus, locus coeruleus, superior raphe nucleus, central gray, and reticular formation), and projects to dorsal (pallial) regions and most of the nuclei afferent to Vv. The dorsal nucleus of V (Vd) and Vs mainly project to the dorsal area.  

The dorsal plus dorsolateral pallial zone of D (Dd+Dl-d) receives afferents from contralateral Dd+Dl-d, the ventral area of the telencephalon, preoptic nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, medial thalamus, preglomerular complex, anterior and lateral tuberal nuclei, posterior tuberal nucleus, posterior hypothalamic lobe, superior raphe nucleus, and the rhombencephalic central gray and reticular formation, and projects to the central zone of D (Dc), medial thalamus, and some caudomedial hypothalamic regions. The medial zone of D (Dm) maintains reciprocal connections with the preglomerular complex and also receives afferents from the preoptic nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, anterior tuberal nucleus, preglomerular tertiary gustatory nucleus, posterior tubercle, superior raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, and the rhombencephalic central gray, and reticular formation. Dc receives fibers mainly from Dd+Dl-d, preoptic nucleus, preglomerular complex, and torus semicircularis and projects to several extratelencephalic centers, including the paracommissural nucleus, optic tectum, torus semicircularis, thalamus, preglomerular complex, posterior tubercle nuclei, and inferior hypothalamic lobes. The posterior zone of D (Dp) is mainly connected with the olfactory bulbs, the ventral and supracommissural nuclei of the ventral area (subpallium), the preoptic nucleus, and the preglomerular complex and projects to wide hypothalamic and posterior tubercular regions. The preoptic nucleus projects to the olfactory bulb, to most regions of the telencephalic lobes, and to several diencephalic and brainstem structures.  

These axons terminated in glomerular-like clusters within the frontal neocortex (n = 5) or anterior olfactory nucleus with some axons extending into the subventricular epithelium (n = 22).  

Within the ventral striatum, immunoreactivity was more pronounced within the olfactory tubercle and the shell region of the nucleus accumbens than in the nucleus accumbens core and was especially marked within the lateral striatal stripe.  

RESULTS: No c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) was observed in animals undergoing GvHR in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), the locus coeruleus (LC), the organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis (OVLT), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the central amygdaloid nucleus (Ce).  

TMT presentation, especially with amounts (> or =75 micromol) producing endocrine activation, induced c-fos mRNA in several brain areas, including the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nucleus, septohypothalamic nucleus, anteromedial and oval nuclei of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the central nucleus of the amygdala, the anteroventral, anterodorsal, and medial preoptic nuclei, the anterior, dorsomedial, lateral, supramammillary, dorsal premammillary and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, the external lateral parabrachial nucleus, the locus coeruleus, and the nucleus of the solitary tract.  

In addition, abundant intratelencephalic connections, via the rostral branch of the stria terminalis, were revealed, involving mainly the basal ganglia, septal nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and especially other amygdaloid nuclei.  

We have shown recently that DA neurons reaching the core and the dorsomedial shell parts of the nucleus accumbens and the anterior part of the striatum are differentially involved in latent inhibition. In this study, using in vivo voltammetry in freely moving rats, we investigated the influence of the ENT on the DA responses obtained in the core and dorsomedial shell parts of the nucleus accumbens and the anterior part of the striatum. Results obtained during the third session (test session), in animals submitted to the reversible blockade of the ENT before the first session were as follows: (1) pre-exposed conditioned animals displayed behavioral aversive responses; (2) where core DA responses were concerned, responses were situated between those observed in pre-exposed and non-pre-exposed conditioned animals; (3) by contrast, where the dorsomedial shell part of the nucleus accumbens and the anterior striatum were concerned, DA variations were not statistically different in pre-exposed and non-pre-exposed conditioned rats. These data suggest that the left ENT exerts a crucial influence over the latent-inhibition-related DA responses in the left dorsomedial shell part of the nucleus accumbens and the left anterior part of the striatum, whereas one or more other brain regions control DA variations in the left core part of the nucleus accumbens.  

Our findings suggest the following telencephalic divisions: (1) a central amygdala-bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the caudal midventral telencephalon, connected to visceral-autonomic centers; (2) a vomeronasal amygdala in the caudolateral ventral telencephalon receiving input from the accessory olfactory bulb and projecting mainly to the preoptic region/hypothalamus; (3) an olfactory amygdala in the caudal pole of the telencephalon lateral to the vomeronasal amygdala receiving input from the main olfactory bulb and projecting to the hypothalamus; (4) a medial amygdala receiving input from the anterior dorsal thalamus and projecting to the medial pallium, septum, and hypothalamus; (5) a ventromedial column formed by a nucleus accumbens and a ventral pallidum projecting to the central amygdala, hypothalamus, and posterior tubercle; (6) a lateral column constituting the dorsal striatum proper rostrally and the dorsal pallidum caudally, and a ventrolateral column constituting the ventral striatum.  

There were decreases in alpha2A expression in the nucleus tractus solitarius; however, this was seen only in rats returned to ambient conditions for 7 days.  

Here, we show that in the absence of the LIM-homeodomain (LIM-HD) gene Lhx2, a particular amygdaloid nucleus, the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract (nLOT), is selectively disrupted.  

The heaviest projections from the amygdala to the piriform cortex originated in the medial division of the lateral nucleus, the periamygdaloid and sulcal subfields of the periamygdaloid cortex, and the posterior cortical nucleus. Lighter projections to the posterior piriform cortex originated in the dorsolateral division of the lateral nucleus, the magnocellular and parvicellular divisions of the basal and accessory basal nuclei, and the anterior cortical nucleus. The projections to the anterior piriform cortex were light and originated in the dorsolateral and medial divisions of the lateral nucleus, the magnocellular division of the basal and accessory basal nuclei, the anterior and posterior cortical nuclei, and the periamygdaloid subfield of the periamygdaloid cortex.  

Most regions did not differ between groups but, importantly, the cDIO mice had a significantly higher 5-HT2A/2C binding density in the anterior olfactory nucleus and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) compared to the cDR and LF mice (+39% and +47%, p=0.003 and 0.045, respectively), whereas the latter two groups did not differ. On the other hand, the cDR mice had significantly lower 5-HT transporter binding than the cDIO and LF mice, respectively, in the nucleus accumbens (-44%, -38%, both p<0.02), central nucleus of the amygdaloid nucleus (-40%, -44%, p=0.003 and 0.009), and olfactory tubercle nucleus (-42%, -42%, both p=0.03).  

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