The only regions projecting to the lateral thalamus appeared to be the thalamic reticular nucleus (RTh) and the dorsal peripeduncular nucleus (PpD).
in NeuroReport, the authors postulate that the peripeduncular nucleus might be of previously unexpected clinical relevance..
The analysis of the posterior thalamus revealed that about 50% of CGRP-containing neurons projected to the AStr, the projections originating in the medial part of the medial geniculate body, posterior intralaminar nucleus, parvicellular subparafascicular nucleus, and peripeduncular nucleus.
in NeuroReport, the authors postulate that the peripeduncular nucleus might be of previously unexpected clinical relevance..
Our findings indicate that the magnocellular medial preoptic nucleus receives 1) chemosensory input from areas in the main and accessory olfactory pathways including the posterior medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, anterior medial, anterior cortical and posterior cortical nuclei of the amygdala; 2) input from steroid responsive structures such as the posterior medial nucleus of the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral septum, anteroventral periventricular nucleus, medial preoptic nucleus, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and arcuate nucleus; 3) input from structures in the brainstem such as the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus, peripeduncular nucleus and the premamillary nucleus in the hypothalamus that carry sensory information from the genitalia.
Following selective injections of Fluoro-Gold in the Am, retrogradely labeled neurons were observed in parasubthalamic nucleus, peripeduncular nucleus, periaqueductal gray, dopaminergic nuclear complex (substantia nigra pars lateralis and pars compacta, paranigral, parabrachial pigmented and interfascicular nuclei, rostral and caudal linear nuclei, retrorubral area), deep mesencephalic nucleus, serotoninergic structures (dorsal, median and pontine raphe nuclei), laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (Ch6 and Ch5 groups), parabrachial nuclear complex, locus coeruleus, nucleus incertus, ventrolateral pontine tegmentum (A5 group), dorsomedial medulla (nucleus of the solitary tract, A2 group), ventrolateral medulla (A1/C1 group), and pars caudalis of the spinal trigeminal nucleus.
Significantly greater magnitude of blood oxygenation level-dependent signal changes were found during early follicular compared with midcycle timing in central amygdala, paraventricular and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei, hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate gyrus (aCING), and peripeduncular nucleus of the brainstem, a network of regions implicated in the stress response.
The PL was considered to be composed of: the MGm, the posterior intralaminar nucleus (PIN), the peripeduncular nucleus (PP) and the nucleus subparafascicularis lateralis (SPFL).
The parvocellular subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPFp) is located in the posterior thalamus, consists of horizontally oriented cells, and extends from rostromedial to caudolateral, fusing with the posterior intralaminar nucleus and the peripeduncular nucleus.
A significantly higher 2-deoxyglucose uptake in the vocalizers than the non-vocalizers was found in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, supplementary and pre-supplementary motor area, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, primary motor cortex, claustrum, centrum medianum, perifornical hypothalamus, periaqueductal grey, intercollicular region, dorsal mesencephalic reticular formation, peripeduncular nucleus, substantia nigra, nucl.
We also observed densely packed groups of fluorescent neurones in the peripeduncular nucleus and numerous labelled neurones in the nucleus of the brachium of the IC.
In rats, ErbB4 expression was observed in the habenular nuclei, the paraventricular nucleus, intermediodorsal nucleus, the central medial thalamic nucleus, the posterior nucleus, the parafascicular nucleus, the subparafascicular nucleus, the suprageniculate nucleus, the posterior limitans nucleus, the medial part of the medial geniculate nucleus, the peripeduncular nucleus, the posterior intralaminar nucleus, the lateral subparafascicular nucleus, the lateral posterior nucleus, and all ventral thalamic nuclei.
the suprageniculate nucleus (SG), the posterior intralaminar nucleus (PIN), the medial division of the medial geniculate nucleus (MGm), and the peripeduncular nucleus (PP), are regarded as important extralemniscal relay nuclei for sensory stimuli and as an important link for the direct transmission of sensory stimuli to the amygdala.
These nuclei, which include the suprageniculate nucleus (SG), the posterior intralaminar nucleus (PIN), the peripeduncular nucleus (PP) and the medial division of the medial geniculate body (MGm), project to both cortex and amygdala, but target areas and the extent of the projection of individual nuclei are not known yet.
In the brainstem, OFQ was prominent in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra, nucleus of the posterior commissure, central gray, nucleus of Darkschewitsch, peripeduncular nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, tegmental nuclei, locus coeruleus, raphe complex, lateral parabrachial nucleus, inferior olivary complex, vestibular nuclear complex, prepositus hypoglossus, solitary nucleus, nucleus ambiguous, caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus, and reticular formation.
In order to investigate the role of the peripeduncular nucleus (PP) in the control of lordosis in female rats, activation of neurons after mounts without intromission was investigated by means of FOS immunoreactivity (FOS-IR). This limited stimulation produced FOS-IR in the ventrolateral division of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMHVL), in the lateral periaqueductal grey (LPAG), in the peripeduncular nucleus (PP), and in the posterior intralaminar thalamic nucleus (PIL).
the suprageniculate nucleus, the medial division of the medial geniculate nucleus, the posterior intralaminar nucleus and the peripeduncular nucleus) which relay sensory information to the amygdala are thought to receive convergent input from multiple sites. Injections of Miniruby into the suprageniculate nucleus labelled predominantly neurons in the stratum opticum of the superior colliculus, whereas injections into the medial division of the medial geniculate body, the posterior intralaminar nucleus and the peripeduncular nucleus labelled predominantly neurons in the deep layers of the superior colliculus. More ventrally located injections, focused onto the posterior intralaminar and peripeduncular nucleus, almost exclusively labelled neurons in layer 1 of the external nucleus and the dorsal part of the dorsal nucleus.
the suprageniculate nucleus, the medial division of the medial geniculate body, the posterior intralaminar nucleus, and the peripeduncular nucleus.
Audiogenic seizures caused a marked induction of c-fos messenger RNA (mRNA) in septal nucleus, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, amygdaloid nuclei, peripeduncular nucleus, and inferior colliculus, which was almost completely blocked by the pretreatment with MK-801.
Heretofore unrecognized projections were traced to the parafascicular and reuniens thalamic nuclei, and the peripeduncular nucleus.
Thalamic projections from Te2 targeted the lateral posterior nucleus, the dorsal part of the dorsal subnucleus of the medial geniculate complex, and the peripeduncular nucleus.
The prefrontopontine terminations were located preferentially in the paramedian nucleus and in the medial parts of the peripeduncular nucleus, but each cortical area appeared to have a unique complement of pontine nuclei with which it is connected.
Androgen receptor-immunoreactive regions included the medial preoptic area and other forebrain areas previously identified as containing androgen receptors, the dorsal and ventral periaqueductal gray, and a midbrain region that included the lateral part of the central tegmental field, part of the caudal zona incerta, the subparafascicular nucleus of the thalamus and the peripeduncular nucleus.
They are (from rostral to caudal) 1) lateral/ ventrolateral regions of the diencephalo-mesopontine periaqueductal gray (PAG); 2) the peripeduncular nucleus; 3) discrete nuclei of pontomesencephalic central gray (dorsal raphe nucleus, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, and Barrington's nucleus); 4) the longitudinal extent of the central core of the mesencephalic through meduallary reticular formation (RF); 5) the ventromedial medulla (nucleus gigantocellularis pars alpha, nucleus raphe magnus, and nucleus raphe pallidus); 6) the ventrolateral medulla (nucleus reticularis parvocellularis and the rostral ventrolateral medullary region); and 7) the inferior olivary nucleus.
The significant induction of c-fos mRNA by audiogenic seizures is prominent in several brain areas including central gray, peripeduncular nucleus, inferior colliculus, septal nucleus, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and dorsomedial hypothalamus.
In the auditory thalamus, FLI was found mainly in the peripeduncular nucleus, the dorsal and medial divisions of the medial geniculate body, whereas its ventral division was virtually devoid of immunoreactive neurons.
Pathways arising from the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area, the dorsal raphe, the lateral mammillary nucleus, the supramammillary nucleus, the triangular septal and septo-fimbrial nuclei, several thalamic nuclei, the parabrachial nucleus, the peripeduncular nucleus, the medial amygdala contain at least some calretinin.
Kindled seizure generalization from the inferior collicular cortex produced a global increase in 2-DG accumulation, while relative 2-DG increases were found in the inferior collicular cortex, dorsal lateral lemniscus, dorsal central gray, peripeduncular nucleus, medial geniculate nucleus, substantia nigra, entopeduncular nucleus, ventroposterior and centromedian thalamus and tenia tectum, as well as the perirhinal, somatosensory and frontal cortices. Kindled seizure generalization also increased c-fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the inferior collicular cortex, cuneiform nucleus, dorsal lateral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, peripeduncular nucleus, caudal central gray, dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, rhinal fissure area of the perirhinal cortex and the frontal cortex. Microinjections of procaine into the amygdala, perirhinal cortex, entopeduncular nucleus, substantia nigra, peripeduncular nucleus, dorsal central gray, and pontine reticular nucleus all prevented generalized seizure behaviors, but had no effect on the wild running seizures.
Confocal microscopy of rat brain sections double-labelled with anti-mu opioid receptor and anti-GIRK1 antibodies revealed colocalization of GIRK1 and mu opioid receptor immunoreactivities in somata of subpopulations of neurons in the cerebral cortex, anterior olfactory nucleus, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, peripeduncular nucleus, hippocampal formation, diagonal band, thalamus, locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe, red nucleus, nucleus of the trapezoid body, reticular nucleus, vestibular nucleus, inferior colliculus and the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus.
Immunoreactive structures were also found in the nuclei of the central grey, the peripeduncular nucleus and substantia nigra pars lateralis, the geniculate nucleus and in the superior and inferior colliculi.
At the thalamic level, FLI neurons were seen in the dorsal and medial divisions of the medial geniculate body as well as in the peripeduncular nucleus.
In the midbrain, label appeared in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and peripeduncular nucleus on both sides.
Terminations in the pons were distributed in the dorsolateral and lateral nuclei, and the lateral part of the peripeduncular nucleus.
Extensive projections were also found to the peripeduncular nucleus.
Until now it is unknown whether the peripeduncular nucleus, which receives input from these structures according to anterograde tracing studies, plays a role in the funneling of orofacial dyskinesia to lower output stations. In the present study the connection of the subcommissural part of the globus pallidus and dorsal parts of the extended amygdala with the peripeduncular nucleus was investigated anatomically, using cholera toxin subunit B as a retrograde tracer, and functionally, using intracerebral injections of GABAergic compounds. The anatomical data show that the sub-commissural part of the globus pallidus and dorsal parts of the extended amygdala were marked by cholera toxin sub-unit B-immunoreactive cells following injections of this retrograde tracer into the peripeduncular nucleus. Thus, it could be confirmed that the peripeduncular nucleus receives input from the sub-commissural part of the globus pallidus and dorsal parts of the extended amygdala. Still, the orofacial dyskinesia elicited by local injections of the GABA antagonist picrotoxin (500 ng/0.5 microliters) into the sub-commissural part of the globus pallidus and dorsal extended amygdala was only in part attenuated by local injections of the GABA agonist muscimol (100 ng/l microliters) into the peripeduncular nucleus. Furthermore, tongue protrusions, but no additional oral movements, were elicited by picrotoxin injections (375-500 ng) into the peripeduncular nucleus..
The Pf-sPf complex projects to the hypothalamus, the substantia innominata, the peripeduncular nucleus, and the amygdala.
Other portions of this stream form the parvocellular subparafascicular nucleus and the peripeduncular nucleus.
Of the subcortical afferents, the claustrum and the midbrain peripeduncular nucleus contained the greatest number of D-[ 3H]-aspartate labeled cells.
The electrical stimulation also identified a number of regions that would support electrically dependent seizure behaviors: the cuneiform nucleus, the ventrolateral inferior colliculus, portions of the dorsal central gray, and the peripeduncular nucleus.
Injections of fluoro-gold into the amygdala and amygdalostriatal transition area followed by immunohistochemistry for CGRP revealed double-labeled neurons in the subparafascicular, lateral subparafascicular, and posterior intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus and peripeduncular nucleus.
Following injections of isotope into the multimodal areas (TPO and PGa) in the upper bank of the STS, intense aggregations of label were observed in the extreme dorsolateral, dorsolateral, and lateral nuclei of the pons, and modest amounts of label were seen in the peripeduncular nucleus.
The posterior hypothalamus, in particular the lateral hypothalamic area, receives substantial afferent projections from: substantia nigra, peripeduncular nucleus, ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal grey, mesencephalic reticular formation, peribrachial region including the locus coeruleus complex, rostral raphe nuclei and the rostral part of the nucleus magnus.
Differences in the distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide mRNA between the rat and guinea-pig included a higher proportion of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons containing calcitonin gene-related peptide mRNA and the localization of calcitonin gene-related peptide mRNA to motoneurons of the ambiguus motor nucleus, parabrachial and peripeduncular nucleus of the rat but not the guinea-pig.
Smaller and sparser collections of stained cell bodies could be found in the ventromedial hypothalamus, the posterior pretectal nucleus, the nucleus of the posterior commissure, the peripeduncular nucleus, the periaqueductal central gray, the contralateral anterior pretectal nucleus, and the locus coeruleus.
No terminal labeling was found in the caudal linear nucleus, interfascicular nucleus, peripeduncular nucleus, rostral linear nucleus of the raphe, substantia nigra pars lateralis and the substantia nigra pars reticulata.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity was first detected in the fibers of the nucleus of spinal tract trigeminal nerve on gestational day 18, and thereafter appeared gradually in various brain stem areas such as in the fibers of the solitary tract, gracile nucleus, cuneate nucleus, inferior colliculus, superior colliculus, medial geniculate nucleus and in the neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus, facial nucleus, superior olive, parabrachial area, superior colliculus and peripeduncular nucleus. In colchicine-untreated animals, the immunoreactive fibers increased in number and reached adult level by postnatal day 14, whereas the number of cells reached a maximum between postnatal days 2 and 6 and then decreased in number and immunoreactivity or disappeared, except in some areas such as the superior olive and peripeduncular nucleus, which showed the same immunoreactivity as for adult animals.
A sector of labeled neuron somata lies contiguous to each of these axon terminal zones, the largest of which is a thalamic nucleus containing cells of distinctive dendritic architecture extending from the periaqueductal gray across the posterior group nuclei to the peripeduncular nucleus, forming a linear array at the mesodiencephalic junction.
Using a combination of injection cannula and recording electrode, the effect of 1 microliter of 3 mM verapamil upon the multiunit responses evoked in the peripeduncular nucleus (PPN) by electric stimuli applied to the pudendal nerves in urethane anesthetized proestrous female rats was studied in 9 experiments.
The suckling stimulus appears to be important for activating these neural systems by way of the peripeduncular nucleus..
For example, tangles were found in the nucleus paranigralis, peripeduncular nucleus, medial parabrachial nucleus and several midline thalamic nuclei.
DYN B cell bodies were present in nonpyramidal cells of neo- and allocortices, medium-sized cells of the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, lateral part of the central nucleus of the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, preoptic area, and in sectors of nearly every hypothalamic nucleus and area, medial pretectal area, and nucleus of the optic tract, periaqueductal gray, raphe nuclei, cuneiform nucleus, sagulum, retrorubral nucleus, peripeduncular nucleus, lateral terminal nucleus, pedunculopontine nucleus, mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, parabigeminal nucleus, dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, lateral superior olivary nucleus, superior paraolivary nucleus, medial superior olivary nucleus, ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, lateral dorsal tegmental nucleus, accessory trigeminal nucleus, solitary nucleus, nucleus ambiguus, paratrigeminal nucleus, area postrema, lateral reticular nucleus, and ventrolateral region of the reticular formation.
Other brainstem regions that appear to provide modest inputs include the ventral tegmental area, central tegmental field, periaqueductal gray, pedunculopontine nucleus, and the peripeduncular nucleus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).
In order to test the hypothesis that peripeduncular nucleus (PPN) cells are essential for normal sexual behavior, synaptic blockade in the chronically implanted awake animal was attempted by means of the local injection of pentobarbital (PB) at a concentration which may interfere with synaptic transmission without affecting conduction in fibers.
Based on the latter information, 22 mM pentobarbital was applied to different parts of the peripeduncular-hypothalamic pathways responsible for the conduction and generation of potentials evoked in the ventromedial nucleus (VMN) by stimuli applied to the peripeduncular nucleus (PPN), to determine whether participation of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis involves the transynaptic activation of neuron somas at these places or the operation of passing fibers only.
In addition, we found reciprocal connections with septo-hypothalamic nucleus, amygdalo-hipocampal nucleus, subiculum, parafascicular thalamic nucleus, posterior thalamic nucleus at the caudo-ventral subdivision, median preoptic nucleus, lateral preoptic nucleus, anterior hypothalamic nucleus, periventricular area at the caudal hypothalamic level, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, posterior hypothalamic nucleus, dorsal and ventral premammillary nucleus, lateral mammillary nucleus, peripeduncular nucleus, periventricular gray, ventral tegmental area, interpeduncular nucleus, nucleus raphe pontis, nucleus raphe magnus, pedunculo-pontine tegmental nucleus, gigantocellular reticular nucleus and solitary tract nucleus.
It is suggested that the peripeduncular nucleus plays an important role in the neuroendocrine control of male and female copulatory behavior, as well as in the regulation of the milk ejection reflex..
A large number of labelled cells were seen around the superior cerebellar peduncle, in the caudal part of the periaqueductal grey and in the peripeduncular nucleus.
Single shock stimuli applied to the peripeduncular nucleus (PPN) elicited a complex evoked response in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMN).
After HRP injections into the lateral hypothalamic area, labeled cells were found mainly in the medial prefrontal and infralimbic cortices, lateral and dorsal septal nuclei, nucleus accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial and lateral amygdaloid nuclei, lateral habenular nucleus, peripeduncular nucleus, ventral tegmental area, mesencephalic and pontine central gray, ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, lateral parabrachial area, raphe nuclei and the nucleus locus coeruleus.
After HRP injections into the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, labeled cells were found mainly in the medial and basolateral amygdaloid nuclei, subiculum, peripeduncular nucleus and the parabrachial area. HRP-labeled cells following the medial preoptic area injections were found mainly in the infralimbic cortex, lateral and medial septal nuclei, nucleus accumbens, diagonal band, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial amygdaloid nucleus, subiculum, peripeduncular nucleus and the parabrachial area.
Injections in the central nucleus label neurons at the dorsal aspect of substantia nigra, para compacta, and in the adjacent ventral tegmental area and peripeduncular nucleus. Injections in the medical nucleus lead to labeling of neurons in the peripeduncular nucleus, the dorsal raphe and superior central nuclei, the parabrachial nucleus, and in the dorsomedial extreme of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.
In the mesencephalon, there is heavy labeling dorsal to the substantia nigra ad over the peripeduncular nucleus and lighter labeling within the substantia nigra pars compacta and the ventral tegmental area; the midbrain central gray is also labeled.
A number of these connections confirm studies using anterograde transport techniques, but others have not been described before, including an extensive projection to the VMH from the mesencephalic peripeduncular nucleus..
Subcortical afferents were found from the hypothalamus, substantia innominata, diagonal band, thalamus, periaqueductal central gray, peripeduncular nucleus and from a band of cells extending medially from the peripeduncular nucleus to the midline, just ventral to the thalamus.
Electric stimuli applied to both pudendal nerves evoked field potentials, unit responses, and multiunit responses in the ventrolateral midbrain, in and around the peripeduncular nucleus.
Some fibers probably terminate here, but others continue caudally to end in the dentral tegmental fields, and particularly in the peripeduncular nucleus.
Experiments involving the anterograde, autoradiographic method show that the basal nucleus and substantia innominata form part of a complex pathway that links them together with the lateral hypothalamus, certain parts of the amygdala and the peripeduncular nucleus of the midbrain. The peripeduncular nucleus is often regarded as a part of the central auditory pathway; it gives rise to a fiber bundle of considerable size that ascends on the dorsal surface of the ipsilateral optic tract and terminates ultimately in the lateral hypothalamic area of both sides.
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