Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus


Uptake of 2-DG was measured in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN), the medial superior olive (MSO), and the inferior colliculus (IC) on both sides of the brain.  

Principal neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) integrate the large, excitatory inputs from Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) bushy cells with conventional inhibitory inputs to produce an inhibitory output to the lateral and medial superior olive.  

Extracellular injections of biocytin into the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) revealed that although the cochlear nuclei are smaller in je/je mice, the topography in its innervation resembles that in wild-type mice.  

Gai and Carney (J Neurophysiol 96:2451-2464, 2006) previously explored the detection of tones in noise based on responses in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus; that study focused on temporal information in discharge reliability and analyses of neural responses related to the fine structure or envelope of the stimulus.  

To determine which mechanisms affect depression under physiological conditions, we studied the synapse formed by auditory nerve fibers onto bushy cells in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (the "endbulb of Held") using voltage-clamp recordings of brain slices from P15-P21 mice near physiological temperatures.  

There exists a developmental window of time when auditory neurons, including neurons of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN), depend on afferent input for survival.  

Anatomical and physiological studies have shown that Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) neurons receive glycinergic and GABAergic inhibitory inputs.  

The marginal shell of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus houses small cells that are distinct from the overlying microneurons of the granule cell domain and the underlying projection neurons of the magnocellular core.  

At 9-months of age, hair cell counts (cytocochleograms) were obtained, and morphometric measures of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) were obtained.  

In both normal and deaf mice, the ipsilateral projections from the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) to the lateral superior olive (LSO), and the contralateral projections from the AVCN to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) were intact.  

Kv3.1b channel protein is widely distributed in the mammalian auditory brainstem, but studies have focused mainly on regions critical for temporal processing, including the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) and Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN).  

Mature nucleus magnocellularis (NM) neurons, the avian homolog of bushy cells of the mammalian Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus, maintain high [ Cl-]i and depolarize in response to GABA.  

In order to investigate the mechanism of the missing fundamental in the frequency range where these influence can not be ignored, we have made Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus models (AVCN models).  

During a critical period prior to hearing onset, cochlea ablation leads to massive neuronal death in the mouse Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN), where cell survival is believed to depend on glutamatergic input.  

We used electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry to investigate the properties of I(h) in three auditory brainstem nuclei in mice: the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN), the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) and the lateral superior olive (LSO).  

To examine possible neural strategies for the detection of tones in broadband noise, single-neuron extracellular recordings were obtained from the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) in anesthetized gerbils.  

The cell densities and the across-sectional areas of neurons in Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus and posterocentral cochlear nucleus were no difference in the guinea pigs.  

Cells in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (aVCN) send out calyceal axons that form large excitatory somatic terminals, the calyces of Held, onto principal cells of the contralateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB).  

The dorsal region of their Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (most strongly stimulated by the AAE) was larger, had more surviving neurons, and larger neurons than those of untreated control mice.  

Spike trains from auditory nerve (AN) and Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) neurons of cats to many repetitions of a set of broadband and narrowband noise tokens were obtained.  

Deprivation of auditory nerve input in young mice results in dramatic neuron death in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (CN), while the same manipulation performed in older mice does not result in significant neuronal loss.  

The development and maintenance of the adult expression and distribution of Kv 1.1 and Kv 1.2, two voltage-dependent potassium channel subunits, were investigated in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) of the rat.  

The mammalian auditory pathways that compute the direction of a sound source are located in the brainstem and include the connection from bushy cells in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) to the principal neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB).  

Aspartate concentration in rostral Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) showed a decline to 28% less than the control value at 29 and 85 days after treatment, whereas glutamate concentration showed little change through 29 days, then dropped by 22% at 85 days after treatment.  

Whole-cell recordings were made from visualized neurons in slices of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) and Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN).  

At 55 days of age, AAE-treated mice exhibited less elevation of auditory brainstem response thresholds, fewer missing hair cells, and greatly reduced loss of Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) volume and neuron number compared to untreated control mice.  

Ventrally placed injections had an additional projection into the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus, whereas dorsally placed injections had an additional projection into the posteroventral cochlear nucleus.  

Labeled boutons were also present in the ventral cochlear nucleus, where they were located in the small cell cap as well as magnocellular parts of both posteroventral and Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus.  

Biotinylated dextran injections into the dorsal cochlear nucleus anterogradely labeled the tuberculo-ventral tract and its endings in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus but also retrogradely filled cochlear nerve fibers and their terminals in the same regions.  

Labeled mossy fibers were seen in 9.0% of mossy fibers detected after tracer injection into the ipsilateral Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus, in 7.3% of mossy fibers after contralateral collicular injection, and 13.2% after contralateral cochlear nucleus injection. Most of the anterograde-labeled ipsilateral mossy fibers containing small round synaptic vesicles, are probably derived from multipolar neurons within the ipsilateral Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus.  

They also provide widespread local innervation of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus and a small innervation of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus.  

In contrast, neurons that normally express AMPA receptors with little or no GluR2, such as in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus, showed no decrease in AMPA receptors and even showed an increase in one AMPA receptor subunit.  

Spherical bushy neurons in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus receive glutamatergic primary terminals from the cochlear nerve and terminals of noncochlear (i.e.  

Cochlear ablation results in the death of Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) neurons from birth to approximately postnatal day 14 (P14) in the murine brainstem.  

We have used two approaches to post-embedding immunogold labeling to investigate whether nerve terminals in the guinea-pig Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) that contain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or glycine are capable of retrieving the other amino acid as part of an investigation of colocalization of these putative neurotransmitters.  

We have studied glycinergic mIPSCs in two auditory brainstem nuclei, the rat Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) and the mouse medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB).  

Congenital deafness represents an extreme form of auditory deprivation, and in the adult white cat, synapses between auditory nerve endings and resident cells of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus exhibited abnormal structure.  

Spherical bushy cells (SBCs) of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) receive their main excitatory input from auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) through large synapses, endbulbs of Held.  

PICK1-immunoreactivity (ir) was observed in many component nuclei of the central auditory system, including the dorsal cochlear nucleus, Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus, posteroventral cochlear nucleus, some divisions of the superior olivary complex, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, and primary auditory cortex.  

Optical density (OD) measurements were made from individual neurons in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) and from medial and lateral dendritic fields in the medial superior olivary nucleus (MSO), the lateral superior olivary nucleus, and the inferior colliculus.  

In postnatal day 5 (P5) or P8 wild-type mice, cochlea removal resulted in a 54% or 31% neuronal loss in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN), respectively.  

Glutamate concentrations were 23% lower in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) and 40% lower in the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) of carboplatin-injected chinchillas as compared to controls, while aspartate concentrations were 18% lower in AVCN and 27% lower in PVCN.  

These neurons resided in the posteroventral and Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus, the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the lateral superior olive, the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, the dorsal and ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus.  

We investigated the properties of synaptic transmission in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) of normal and congenitally deaf dn/dn mice.  

Using the isolated whole brain preparation of the guinea pig, we tested the effects of electrical stimulation of the contralateral auditory nerve (AN) on intracellularly recorded and stained neurons of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus.  

Auditory nerve fibres make large excitatory synaptic contacts, the endbulbs of Held, with bushy cells in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN).  

In the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus, spherical cell soma size was smaller in all homozygous (dfw) mutants than in heterozygous mice and controls.  

This investigation examines temporal processing through successive sites in the rat auditory pathway: auditory nerve (AN), Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB).  

Fiber segments were most dense in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (especially in the molecular layer) and the large spherical cell area of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus; they were moderately dense in the small cell cap region; and fiber segments were least dense in the octopus and multipolar cell regions of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus.  

After injection of the tracer into the contralateral inferior colliculus few anterogradely labelled boutons were seen on spherical and multipolar cells of type II in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus.  

The strongest GluR-C and -D flop expression is found in the ventral and medial part of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus, the posteroventral cochlear nucleus, and the medial and the lateral superior olive.  

The majority of terminals contacting spherical bushy cell bodies in the guinea-pig Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus contain GABA, glycine or both (colocalizing).  

In addition, soma size was systematically analyzed in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus of both groups. However, the dorsal cochlear nucleus was significantly larger and the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus was significantly smaller in young adults of the wild strain.  

Degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons was seen to lead to a reduction of the volume of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN); the size of the cell nuclei in the AVCN also was reduced.  

The model auditory nerve fibers ramp up linearly (usually in 2 ms) to full firing and the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus cells have primary-like discharge patterns.  

Developmental changes that influence the results of removal of afferent input on the survival of neurons of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) of mice were examined with the hope of providing a suitable model for understanding the cellular and molecular basis for these developmental changes in susceptibility.  

The role of phosphorylation in synaptic transmission was investigated at a large glutamatergic terminal, the endbulb of Held, on bushy cells in the rat Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN).  

Many inhibitory nerve terminals in the mammalian Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) contain both glycine and GABA, but the reason for the co-localization of these two inhibitory neurotransmitters in the AVCN is unknown.  

Immunoreactive fibres were observed in the following; the inferior central nucleus; the pontine gray nuclei; the K├Âlliker-Fuse nucleus; the motor trigeminal nucleus, the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus; the abducens nucleus; the retrofacial nucleus; the superior, lateral, inferior, and medial vestibular nuclei; the lateral nucleus of the superior olive; the external cuneate nucleus; the nucleus of the trapezoid body; the postpyramidal nucleus of the raphe; the medial accessory inferior olive; the dorsal accessory nucleus of the inferior olive; the nucleus ambiguus; the principal nucleus of the inferior olive; the preolivary nucleus; the nucleus ruber; the substantia nigra; and in the area postrema.  

The marginal shell of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus is anatomically and physiologically different from its central core. The results support the conclusion that the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus projects to medial olivocochlear neurons bilaterally and to lateral olivocochlear neurons ipsilaterally.  

The changes of the cross-sectional areas of Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) and posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) were studied in neonatal and adult guinea pigs after monaural cochlear ablation with computer imaging analysis system.  

Retrograde transport of cholera toxin B subunit, injected in the inferior colliculus of chinchillas, was used to label exclusively type I stellate cells in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus.  

The structures tested were the auditory nerve, Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus, superior olivary complex, inferior colliculus, and primary auditory cortex.  

Collision effects were found in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus when the electrical stimulus followed the ipsilateral acoustic stimulus by 2.0 ms, suggesting that acoustic startle is mediated by axons in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus.  

In the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus, labeling in the anterior and marginal cell divisions occurred in regions thought to respond to low-frequency sounds. If the spectral integration of FM-FM neurons is created at the level of the ICC, these results suggest that neurons of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus or monaural nuclei of the lateral lemniscus may provide the essential low-frequency input.  

We are studying the interconnections between the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) and the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN).  

Whole-cell patch electrode recordings of glycinergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) were obtained in neurons of the rat Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN).  

The major input to the MNTB from the contralateral Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) involves giant, calyx-like endings that have a one-to-one relationship with cells in the MNTB as confirmed in the ferret in this study.  

RESULTS: First order spherical bushy cells in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus responded at a short, stable latency with single spikes, due to a perithreshold interaction of Na+ and Ca2+ conductances.  

To elucidate the contribution of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) to 'echo' processing, this study documents the responses of AVCN neurons to simulated echoes and compares them to those of auditory nerve (AN) fibers.  

Spherical bushy cells in the rat Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus lack the nuclear capping of rough endoplasmic reticulum observed in the cat, and none was labelled after injection into the contralateral cochlear nucleus.  

In the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus, labelled multipolar type I and II showed similar immunocytological and ultrastructural characteristics to those in the posteroventral cochlear nucleus but their dimension was smaller.  

In the brainstem, neurons in the lateral superior olivary nucleus and the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus are transiently 5-HT immunolabeled.  

Our observations reveal that the amount of sound-evoked spike activity in auditory nerve fibers influences terminal morphology and synaptic structure in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus.  

Responses of Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) neurons in developing gerbils were obtained to single-tone stimuli, and two-tone stimuli elicited by best frequency probes presented over a range of intensities.  

The Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) is the first central processing site for acoustic information.  

Staining of neuronal somata in the dorsal cochlear nucleus molecular layer and fusiform cell layer, the posteroventral cochlear nucleus octopus cell area, and the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus increased from P7 to P28.  

Both noradrenergic and serotonergic pathways were activated in the dorsal+posteroventral cochlear nuclei (DCN+PVCN) without changes in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) and IC.  

Because the size of the superior olives, collectively, is reliably related to the size of Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (r = 0.744, p < 0.001), and not to the size of dorsal cochlear nucleus, the interconnectivity of the subcortical auditory system is probably a factor in the size of the nuclei.  

The Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) acts as the first relay center in the conduction of auditory information from the ear to the brain, and it probably performs a crucial role in sound localization.  

Low-frequency cells in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) can be sensitive to changes in the spatiotemporal pattern of discharges across their auditory nerve (AN) inputs ().  

The Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN), the first centre of the central auditory pathway, contains globular bushy cells, which are unique in their ability to produce fast excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs).  

This study investigated the morphological changes and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity (GFAP-IR) in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) of acoustically-deprived gerbils during postnatal development.  

The Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus on the deprived side was reduced in volume when the deprivation started before the age of 3 months.  

Labelled fibres and endings were also seen in the granule cell regions of Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) and the most dorsomedial parts of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN).  

The degree of transneuronal atrophy was determined by measuring cell size at three levels of the brain stem auditory pathway (Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus, medial superior olivary nucleus, and inferior colliculus).  

DA-HAN rats exhibited an increased noradrenergic activity in the medial vestibular nuclei, locus coeruleus and Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus, an extended decrease of serotonergic activity in brainstem nuclei and increased DA stores with a reduced dopaminergic activity in most dopaminergic areas.  

The marginal shell of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) is anatomically different from its central core.  

In the cat, lateral superior olivary (LSO) neurons compare the contralateral inhibitory input from the MNTB with an excitatory input form the ipsilateral Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus to extract information about binaural stimuli.  

CN volume, Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) neuron cross-sectional area, and total number of neurons in the CN were measured on both sides of the brain.  

The part of the rhombic lip that forms nucleus magnocellularis (homologue of the mammalian Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus) was explanted from white leghorn chicken embryos at Hamburger-Hamilton stage 28 (E5.5), the time when precursors of the magnocellularis bushy cells migrate and begin to differentiate in situ.  

Cell body silhouette area was determined for spherical bushy cells of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN), pyramidal cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), sensory neurons from the principal trigeminal nucleus, and motoneurons of the facial nucleus.  

Noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA); serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites-3-methoxy, 4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)-were determined using HPLC in medial vestibular nucleus (MVN), Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN), dorsal+posteroventral cochlear nucleus (DCN+PVCN), locus coeruleus (LC) and raphe dorsalis of Dark Agouti-Hanovre (DA-HAN) rats aged 4, 21 and 24 months.  

A prominent lamina of m2-immunoreactive fibers and puncta was located in a subgranular layer of the caudal Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) and the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN).  

Spontaneous and evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded in slices of the rat Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) at the endbulb-bushy cell synaptic connection.  

In this study, type II axons were labeled with horseradish peroxidase, and serial-section electron microscopy was used to examine their swellings in: (1) the granule-cell lamina at its boundary with posteroventral cochlear nucleus, (2) the rostral Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus, and (3) the auditory nerve root.  

The part of the rhombic lip that forms nucleus magnocellularis (homologue of the mammalian Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus) was explanted from white leghorn chicken embryos at Hamburger-Hamilton stage 28 (E5.5), the time when precursors of the magnocellularis bushy cells migrate and begin to differentiate in situ.  

We report here a new finding that the marginal shell of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) in the unanesthetized decerebrate cat contains neural units which were weakly driven or not driven acoustically.  

Morphological measurements were made on histological sections of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) in mice of the DBA/2J and C57BL/6J strains to determine the effects of sensorineural cochlear pathology on the number, packing density, and size of neurons and on AVCN volume.  

Single units were recorded in the marginal shell (38 units in 10 cats) and central core (62 units in 15 cats) of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) in unanesthetized decerebrate cats.  

We applied intracellular recording and staining methods in cats to analyze directly the relationship between spike activity and the structure of synapses using endbulbs of Held, the large synaptic endings in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus.  

Intracellular recordings were made from neurons of the mouse Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) in vitro.  

The Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus was present throughout almost the entire rostrocaudal extent of the complex.  

We injected biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into marginal shell regions of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) of the cat.  

The objective of this study was to precisely evaluate the relationship between the threshold of neurons in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) and the properties of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs).  

Noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites, 3-methoxy,4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in the rat Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN), in the dorsal part of the nucleus including the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) and as a comparison, in the locus coeruleus (LC) and dorsal raphe nucleus (RD) which contain the corresponding noradrenergic and serotonergic cell bodies.  

Glycine receptor binding sites were localized using [ 3H]strychnine in two principal subdivisions of the cochlear nucleus; the dorsal and Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus. In young rats, single concentrations of [ 3H]strychnine showed significantly higher binding levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus than the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (+38%, P < 0.001). A significant age-related decrease in [ 3H]strychnine (8 nM) binding was observed in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (-37%, P = 0.003) and dorsal cochlear nucleus (-23%, P = 0.034) of 26-month-old rats compared with three-month-old rats.  

Cochlear hair cell loss was assessed, and cell areas of spherical bushy cells in the rostral Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) were compared between the lesioned and normal hearing sides for each animal.  

For instance, moderately stained spherical and elongate cells of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus were observed in contact with labeled puncta and amidst stained fibers.  

This would indicate a depolarization-induced nonlinearity similar to that seen in principal cell types of two other auditory brain stem nuclei, the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus and medial nucleus of the trapezoid body.  

We have stimulated responses of stellate cells in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) to single-formant stimuli (SFSs) with the use of recorded auditory-nerve fiber (ANF) responses as inputs.  

The Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) contains two principal cell types that receive input from the auditory nerve.  

A primary target for axons of neurons in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) is the superior olivary complex (SOC).  

Retrograde transport from injections in the medial superior olive labeled spherical cells in the contralateral Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus and principal cells in the ipsilateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body.  

The fibers were most prominent in the superficial layers of the dorsal cochlear nucleus and the anterior spherical cell area of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus. Although less prominent, serotonin-positive fibers were also present in the remaining part of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus and the posteroventral cochlear nucleus.  

The amino acid neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine function as inhibitory neurotransmitters associated with nonprimary inputs onto spherical bushy and stellate cells, two principal cell types located in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN).  

Previous studies have shown that the cross-sectional area of spherical cell somata in the ipsilateral Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus decreases within 24 hours of electrical activity blockade with tetrodotoxin, which is fully reversible when activity is restored.  

After the bifurcation, the pathways of type II branches within the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) and posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) are similar to those of type I branches.  

These cell types differ from each other and from the stellate cells of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus.  

Three experimental parameters were examined: CN volume, cross-sectional area of spherical cells in the rostral Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN), and spherical cell density in this same region.  

Late, slowly rising EPSPs and bursts of IPSPs, as well as monosynaptic IPSPs, could also be evoked by stimulating the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN).  

Phase-locking of neurons in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) is usually reported to be less robust than in auditory nerve (AN) fibers, which provide their major input.  

Auditory nerve (AN) fibers synchronize or phase-lock to low-frequency tones and transmit this temporal information to cells in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN).  

Densely packed FLI neurons were widely distributed in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (more ipsilaterally than contralaterally), while FLI neurons were rare in the posteroventral cochlear nucleus and virtually absent in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus.  

These neurons receive projections from the contralateral Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) and the ipsilateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB).  

We have studied responses of Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) units to single-formant stimuli (SFS), in an effort to make quantitative comparisons with responses observed in auditory-nerve fibers (ANFs) to the same stimuli (Wang and Sachs 1993) and to reveal some of the signal processing mechanisms at the AVCN.  

Single unit thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus duration for Primary-like and Chopper units in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) of the chinchilla to examine the neural correlates of temporal integration.  

The morphological organization of the central projections of the cat cochlear spiral ganglion into the cochlear nucleus was previously investigated by creating restricted lesions in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) to ablate selectively either the lateral or the medial aspect of isofrequency projection laminae.  

Bushy cells in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) receive their principal excitatory input from the auditory nerve and are the primary source of excitatory input to more centrally located brainstem auditory nuclei.  

In each of the five labeled giant cells, shocks to the nerve root or to the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) evoked a monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potential and two tandem inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in the first 10 ms.  

The volume of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus in rats that had had neonatal binaural cochlear disruption was reduced relative to the volume in control rats or in rats that had had binaural ossicle ablation (P < 0.001); the latter procedure did not result in a statistically significant difference from controls in AVCN volume.  

There were no statistically significant difference among Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN), posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) neurons when stimulated sides were compared with unstimulated sides.  

Surprisingly, no or very rare c-fos-like immunoreactive neurons were present in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus and in the superior olivary complex.  

We have recorded the responses of neurons in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) of barbiturate-anesthetized cats to pure tones [ either at the unit's best frequency (BF) or at another frequency (OFF-BF)] and to two-tone combination stimuli.  

Recent physiological evidence has demonstrated that some low-frequency cells in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) are sensitive to manipulations of the phase spectrum of complex sounds (Carney 1990b).  

We have investigated responses of the auditory nerve fibres (ANFS) and Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) units to narrowband 'single-formant' stimuli (SFSS).  

Protein synthesis and size of large spherical cells in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) of 14-day-old gerbils were measured during the first 48 hours after the manipulations.  

The morphological organization of the central projections of the cat cochlear spiral ganglion into the cochlear nucleus has been investigated by creating restricted lesions in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) in order to ablate selectively either the lateral or the medial aspect of isofrequency projection laminae.  

Excitatory inputs to the MSO originate from spherical cells in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus, almost exclusively from the contralateral side.  

The synaptic organization of globular bushy cells of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus was quantitatively analyzed in order to understand better their functional attributes.  

In the sulfa-treated jj rats, cochlear nucleus volume, and cross-sectional areas of spherical cells in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus and principal cells in the nucleus of the trapezoid body, were all significantly smaller than in the combined groups of Nj animals.  

Tuberculoventral neurons in the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) provide frequency-specific inhibition to neurons in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) of the mouse (Wickesberg and Oertel, '88, '90).  

Using intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase, the present study analyzes the projections of these three neuronal subclasses to the various subdivisions of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) and to the different cell types found therein.  

This paper describes the temporal responses of Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) units in the chinchilla to rippled noises.  

The areas of cell somata within the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) on the stimulated side were significantly larger than those of corresponding somata on the control, unstimulated side (P less than 0.001).  

In addition to labeling in auditory nuclei, we found presumed terminal fibers in 4 pontine and mesencephalic areas: (1) the pontine nucleus (PN), which receives bilateral projections from the antero- and posteroventral cochlear nuclei; (2) the ventrolateral tegmental nucleus (VLTg), which receives a contralateral projection from the rostral portion of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus; (3) the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC), which receives bilateral input originating predominantly in the dorsal cochlear nucleus; and (4) the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus (LPGi), which receives projections from all subdivisions of the cochlear nuclei. Injections of the retrograde fluorescent tracer Fluoro-Gold into the VLTg demonstrated that the neurons of origin are mainly located contralaterally in the rostral Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus and in the cochlear root nucleus.  

In the model, two possible developmental programs to form the adult pattern of connections from the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body onto the LSO are also examined.  

Statistical comparisons of spherical cell densities in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN), cross-sectional spherical cell areas, and volumes of the cochlear nucleus subdivisions were included in the analysis.  

These endings are located in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus and arise from the axons of type I spiral ganglion neurons.  

The changes were most pronounced in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus, especially in the neurons that receive terminals of the end bulbs of Held from the cochlear nerve.  

We investigate the discharge patterns of chopper units in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) by developing an equivalent cylinder compartmental model of AVCN stellate cells, which are the sources of the chopper response pattern.  

The development of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) in fetal and infant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) was analyzed for gross morphologic changes together with growth-related modifications in constituent cell size and cell distribution.  

Large spherical cells of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus ipsilateral to manipulation were measured and compared to large spherical cells on the opposite, unmanipulated side of the brain.  

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether projections from the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) to the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) use either of two inhibitory transmitters, glycine or GABA.  

When gerbils of various ages raised under known acoustic conditions were examined, the volume density and number of lesions increased with age, however, the affected region was restricted to the posteroventral cochlear nucleus and adjacent portions of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, interstitial nucleus, and posterior Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus.  

More superficial cuts, penetrating just through the olivocochlear bundle, also led to significant reductions of enzyme activity, especially most rostrally in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus and superficial granular region, where the reductions were similar to those following the complete cuts.  

Type-I and type-II axons labeled by basal turn injections bifurcate together in the dorsal part of the auditory nerve root, forming a branch that ascends into the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus and a branch that descends into the posteroventral cochlear nucleus.  

One fundamental assumption is that the incoming excitatory projections from the ipsilateral Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus innervate columns of LSO neurons serially according to threshold.  

The effect of periaqueductal gray (PAG) electrical stimulation on the response properties of auditory and 'spontaneously' firing units (abolished when the cochlea is destroyed) in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) was explored using extracellular recordings in acute guinea-pigs.  

This study tested the hypothesis that a cell in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) that receives convergent input from auditory nerve (AN) fibers can be sensitive to the temporal pattern of discharges on the set of AN fibers providing its input.  

Previous anatomical experiments have shown that neurons in the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) project topographically to the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) (Wickesberg and Oertel, 1988).  

We have recorded the responses of neurons in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) of barbiturate-anesthetized cats to the synthetic, steady-state-vowel sound /e/, presented over a range of stimulus intensities.  

Single unit responses have been recorded from the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus of the anaesthetised guinea-pig.  

The rostrodorsal part of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) contains predominantly spherical bushy cells, but these cannot be readily divided into large and small types as in the cat.  

The cochlear efferent neurons are localized ipsilaterally in the reticular caudal nucleus of the bridge in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus and in nuclei of lateral and medial olivae.  

The rostral Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) of the chinchilla provides a preparation in which neuronal cell bodies and synapses in the mammalian central nervous system can be examined after direct freezing and freeze-substitution of rapidly excised brain stem slices.  

Immunocytochemistry with a monoclonal antibody against the GABAA/benzodiazepine receptor showed labeled axo-dendritic synapses in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus.  

The responses of neurons in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) of barbiturate-anesthetized cats are characterized with regard to features of their responses to short tone bursts (STBs; 25 ms).  

In the mustached bat, Pteronotus parnellii, noradrenaline (NA) was applied iontophoretically to single units in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus.  

However, the possibility remains that a small proportion of the collicular projections to the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus might use gamma-aminobutyrate or glycine as a transmitter..  

Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine "bushy" and "multipolar" neurons in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) of young (2-month-old) and old (2-year-old) C57BL/6J mice, a strain that develops profound peripheral sensorineural auditory impairment during the second year of life.  

Gly-I in NM also appears to be much less than that in its mammalian homologue, the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus..  

Spike counts from single units in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus differed significantly for different pulse shapes, as did their initial latencies.  

Large spherical cells of the mammalian Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) receive direct excitatory input from auditory nerve axons.  

The number of neurons in Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) was counted, and cross-sectional area measurements of large spherical cells in AVCN were made.  

For seven experiments fast blue was injected into the scala tympani of one cochlea and diamidino yellow was injected into dorsal or Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus of the same side.  

Most terminals were present in the granule cell domain, especially in the subpeduncular corner between the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus and the floccular peduncle of the cerebellum.  

In the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus, neurons identified as spherical cells contained numerous inmunoreactive synapses on their cell bodies, whereas most immunoreactive synapses on stellate cells were on their proximal dendrites.  

Bilateral inputs to DNLL arise from the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus and lateral superior olive, while unilateral inputs are provided by the ipsilateral medial superior olive and the contralateral DNLL.  

Developmental auditory deprivation caused mouse Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus neurons to have significantly fewer auditory nerve terminals and more non-auditory nerve terminals.  

An in vitro tissue slice preparation of the bat brain stem was used to label intracellularly individual axons projecting to the lateral superior olive from two different sources: the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) and the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN). Axon terminal varicosities from the ipsilateral Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus are distributed primarily to more distal dendrites..  

It was not until two postnatal weeks, however, that this immunoreactive labeling was first seen in primary afferent terminals around spherical cells in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus.  

The immunocytochemical distribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was studied by electron microscopy in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) of the guinea pig using affinity-purified antibodies made against GABA conjugated to bovine serum albumin.  

The marginal cell group, located medially to the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus of Pteronotus, receives the densest supply of catecholaminergic fibers of all auditory nuclei.  

In slice preparations, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injections into the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN) reveal two circuits: a connection between the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and AVCN and a local circuit confined to the AVCN.  

We report on the anatomical and physiological features of globular bushy cells in the posterior division of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus based on the characteristics of 20 cells from this population.  

Significant binding was observed in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus, the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the lateral superior olivary nucleus, and the inferior colliculus.  

The projections to the inferior colliculus of the cat are shown in autoradiographs after injections of 3H-amino acids into the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus and anterograde axonal transport. After HRP injections in the inferior colliculus, small numbers of stellate neurons are labeled in the lateral and ventral low-frequency parts of the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus on the ipsilateral side. Neurons from the ipsilateral Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus apparently make more synaptic endings per cell as compared to neurons from the contralateral side. Together, bilateral inputs from the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus can account for a third of the endings with round synaptic vesicles in pars lateralis of the central nucleus. The direct inputs from the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus to the colliculus may influence binaural interactions which occur in the superior olivary complex.  


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