Bulbus Olfactorius

Nicotine stimulated increases in c-fos mRNA in the hippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum ventrale, nucleus accumbens, Bulbus olfactorius, paleostriatum augmentatum, and stratum griseum et fibrosum superficiale. Chlorisondamine blocked nicotine-induced increases in c-fos RNA for 4 days in the nucleus accumbens, a week in the Bulbus olfactorius, and 2 weeks in the stratum griseum et fibrosum superficiale.  

HRP-2 was strongly expressed in the thalamus, prefrontal and parietal cortex, neurohypophysis, and the cerebellum, HRP-3 in the Bulbus olfactorius, piriform cortex and amygdala complex.  

The distribution and accumulation of tritium-labeled preparation was studied in various tissues (tractus olfactorius, Bulbus olfactorius, damaged neocortex region, hippocampus, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebrum, liver) and in the blood of intact, shame-operated (SO), and HS rats 20 and 120 min after intranasal administration. The character of cerebral accumulation in tractus olfactorius and Bulbus olfactorius upon intranasal administration is indicative of the effective drug transport to CNS via these pathways.  

The Bulbus olfactorius accessorius and the caudal mitral cell layer of the Bulbus olfactorius principalis were the most discriminatory structures in separating Salamandridae and Plethodontidae.  

After tracer applications to the TN-ggl and the surrounding Bulbus olfactorius, retrogradely labeled neurons were present in the area dorsalis telencephali pars posterior (Dp), area ventralis telencephali pars ventralis et supracommissuralis (Vv and Vs), nucleus tegmento-olfactorius of Prasada Rao and Finger (1984), and locus coeruleus. In the contralateral Bulbus olfactorius labeled cells were observed, and terminals were seen in the TN-ggl. Tracer applications to the nucleus tegmento-olfactorius labeled abundant terminals in the TN-ggl but labeled very few in the Bulbus olfactorius proper. Tracer applications to the Dp or Vs/Vv labeled terminals mainly in the Bulbus olfactorius proper. However, terminals to the TN-ggl were supplied from labeled axons on their way to the Bulbus olfactorius. These results suggest that the TN-ggl receives somatosensory and visual inputs from the nucleus tegmento-olfactorius and olfactory inputs from the Bulbus olfactorius and telencephalic subdivisions, which receive secondary olfactory projections.  

EB leakage was mainly seen in the cortical areas, cerebellum, pons, thalamus, hypothalamus and corpus striatum of WAG/Rij rat brain, whereas this was recorded in the preoptic area, Bulbus olfactorius, midbrain, hypothalamus, corpus striatum and inferior colliculus of the Wistar rats brain.  

High levels of binding were also detected in the Bulbus olfactorius, bed nucleus commissuralis anterior, bed nucleus commissuralis pallii, nucleus accumbens, bed nucleus striae terminalis and nucleus interpeduncularis.  

Platinum levels were measured in seven regions of the brain: the right and left cerebral cortices, the basal ganglia, the thalamus and hypothalamus, the Bulbus olfactorius, the cerebellum, and the mesencephalon. When cisplatin was administered to mice not subjected to hypoxia, platinum was not detected in the right and left cerebral cortices, basal ganglia or the thalamus and hypothalamus, but was detected in the Bulbus olfactorius, cerebellum and mesencephalon. In addition, platinum levels in the Bulbus olfactorius were significantly higher than those in the other regions, although the platinum content of the Bulbus olfactorius was not affected by hypoxia. From these observations, it is concluded that platinum is easily accumulated in the Bulbus olfactorius after the administration of cisplatin, and that after exposure to atmospheres containing low levels of oxygen, platinum easily passes through the blood-brain barrier and accumulates in all parts of the brain..  

BDV-specific RNA was detected in Bulbus olfactorius, nucleus caudatus, hippocampus and cerebral cortex of all infected animals. By Western Blot assays the highest amounts of BDV antigens were demonstrated in Bulbus olfactorius, nucleus caudatus, hippocampus and cerebral cortex..  

2 anosmia was produced by a central lesion to the Bulbus olfactorius.  

Monohexosylceramide, ganglioside, and sulfatide contents in Bulbus olfactorius were almost equal in amount in contrast to the glycolipids in the cerebrum and cerebellum that contained monohexosylceramide as the major constituent. The amount of monohexosylceramide in the Bulbus olfactorius was 0.3-0.4 times the values obtained for the cerebrum and cerebellum..  

After 60 min of exposure, the flow returned toward the control level in most regions in both groups, whereas the flow was still elevated in the cerebellum and mesencephalon in the control rats and in the Bulbus olfactorius, mesencephalon, medulla oblongata, spinal cord, and posterior part of cortex cerebri in preexposed animals.  

dorsomedial forebrain and Bulbus olfactorius) that are likely to play important roles in species-specific behaviors. In the Bulbus olfactorius, the first PPE mRNA-containing cells are observed after 9 days posthatching.  

Fourteen epidural electrodes were implanted in the Bulbus olfactorius, in the frontal areas Fr2 and Fr1, in the visual areas 18 and 17, and in the cerebellum of the right hemisphere.  

Fourteen epidural electrodes were arranged on the Bulbus olfactorius, on the frontal areas Fr2 and Fr1, on the visual areas 18 and 17, and on the cerebellum of the right hemisphere.  

For instance, the Bulbus olfactorius was heavily labeled in the pigeon, but was not labeled in the chicken, and numerous PPE mRNA-containing cells were present in the area parahippocampalis of pigeons but not of chickens.  

Coherence-phase characteristics of cortical and Bulbus olfactorius (BO) potentials were studied during the lever-pressing alimentary conditioning in dogs.  

The Kpf values ranged from 30 to 75 in the different brain regions and showed decreasing concentrations in the following order: pons + medulla oblongata, basal ganglia, amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus, mesencephalon, Bulbus olfactorius + septum, hippocampus, frontal cortex, occipital cortex, cerebellum.  

Moderate ANF-binding was found in the Bulbus olfactorius, pallium, septum, striatum, lateral forebrain bundle, nucleus infundibularis, hypophyseal pars distalis and tectum.  

Weak to moderate labeling was observed in the Bulbus olfactorius, circumventricular organs, basal ganglia, ventral striatum, thalamus, hippocampus and pineal gland.  

The highest labeling was found in the Bulbus olfactorius (internal plexiform and granular layers) and in the caudal magnocellular nucleus of the hypothalamus.  

In an attempt to correlate changes in the cholinergic enzymes with glucose-induced analgesia, choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities were determined in the cerebral cortex, Bulbus olfactorius, midbrain, hypothalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum, pons and medulla oblongata in control rats and rats treated with a single dose of glucose (10 g/kg) or two doses of glucose. The second administration of glucose was accompanied with tolerance in the level of acetylcholinesterase in the Bulbus olfactorius, midbrain, cerebral cortex, cerebellum and pons.  

NPYi fibres and axon terminals were found in the Bulbus olfactorius, in the dorsal and lateral areas of the telencephalon, in the near surrounding of the ne, below most of the hypothalamic nuclei, as a connection between the nucleus posterior periventribularis and the nucleus recessus lateralis, in the ventral hypothalamus, in the lateral parts of the pituitary and in the caudal diencephalic inferior lobe.  

The highest amounts of immunoreactive NPY were found in the hypothalamus, septum pellucidum, gyrus cinguli, cortex frontalis, parietalis, and piriformis, corpus amygdaloideum, and Bulbus olfactorius (200-1,000 pmol/g wet weight).  

FMRFi fibres and nerve endings occurred in the Bulbus olfactorius, in the tractus opticus, and in the central parts of the dorsal, medial and ventral telencephalon.  

SRIFi fibres appeared in the dorsomedial and in the ventrolateral parts of the Bulbus olfactorius.  

FMRFi neurons were located in the ganglion of the nervus terminalis at the rostroventral side of the Bulbus olfactorius. FMRFi fibers and nerve endings were found in the Bulbus olfactorius, in medial areas of the telencephalon, and rather densely in the rostral diencephalon.  

At various ages the EEG of the Bulbus olfactorius was studied by means of permanently implanted tungsten electrodes, and the neural response to nest odour and geraniol (10(-2) vol.  

Meanwhile, the diabetes condition was associated with significant increase (p less than 0.05) in AChE activity of the Bulbus olfactorius, medulla oblongata and cerebellum.  

Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were determined in the cerebral cortex, Bulbus olfactorius, midbrain, hypothalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum, pons and medulla oblongata of control rats and rats treated with apomorphine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) after a single dose or after a second dose administered 24 h later at 10.00 or 22.00 h. There were no significant differences between tolerant and control animals in the activities of AChE or ChAT in the Bulbus olfactorius, cerebral cortex, midbrain, pons or medulla. A single injection of apomorphine at 22.00 h resulted in significant (p less than 0.01) increase in AChE activity of the midbrain, hippocampus, and the medulla oblongata with no significant changes in the cerebral cortex and Bulbus olfactorius. Meanwhile, there was a significant (p less than 0.05) increase of ChAT activity of the midbrain with no significant changes in the cerebellum, pons and the Bulbus olfactorius..  

vagus, central acustic area, Crista cerebellaris, Bulbus olfactorius, Eminentia granularis, Stratum opticum (of the optic tectum), Torus longitudinalis, Nucleus habenularis, Valvula cerebelli, Corpus cerebelli, Telencephalon, Tectum opticum, Diencephalon, Torus semicircularis, mesencephalic tegmentum.  

FMRFamide fibres occurred in the Bulbus olfactorius, in the anterior, medial and lateral parts of the telencephalon, in the commissura anterior, beneath the nucleus praeopticus, beneath the nucleus dorsomedialis, ventrolis and anterior tuberis as well as in the caudal hypothalamus, surrounding the nucleus recessus lateralis and posterior.  

unfixed tissue of 14 brain structures were determined (telencephalon, diencephalon, nervus opticus, tectum, cerebellum, tegmentum and hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum ventrale, neostriatum, paleostriatum, hippocampus, septum, regio praepiriformis, Bulbus olfactorius).  

On both test days the CMP concentrations were higher in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus than those in the other regions, and those in the cerebellum and Bulbus olfactorius and septum were lower. When the serial fluctuations of the CMP levels were examined in 12 brain regions, there were significant differences between days 2 and 7 in the following four regions: the anterior basal ganglia, hypothalamus, Bulbus olfactorius + septum and amygdala..  

Highest activity was measured in membranes of the Bulbus olfactorius, preoptical area and cerebellum.  

Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were determined in cerebral cortex, Bulbus olfactorius, midbrain, hypothalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum, pons and medulla oblongata in control rats and rats treated with morphine (10 mg/kg) for 1 or 2 days.  

Four hours after the injections, the hippocampus was found to have the highest drug concentration, and the concentrations in this region were in the following order; thalamus, striatum, amygdala, cortex greater than pons + medulla oblongata greater than hypothalamus, Bulbus olfactorius + septum, mesencephalon greater than cerebellum.  

Scatchard plots obtained in rat Bulbus olfactorius allowed to calculate a KD-values of 7.1 nM and a Bmax-values of 37.2 fmol/mg original tissue for "site 1", while "site 2" displayed a KD-value of 0.7 nM and a Bmax-value of 16.3 fmol/mg original tissue. The "site 1" was homogeneously distributed throughout all rat brain areas, whereas the amount of "site 2" binding was markedly different in separate brain areas: Bulbus olfactorius and substantia nigra had the highest amounts (8.9 and 7.8 fmol/mg tissue) while cerebellum had the lowest (0.4 fmol/mg tissue).  

In the telencephalon (Bulbus olfactorius, nucleus caudatus-putamen, septum pellucidum and area dentata), diencephalon (nucleus habenulae medialis, nuclei of the hypothalamus in the vicinity of the third ventricle, and corpus mamillare), mesencephalon (substantia nigra), cerebellum (mainly in the nodulus), pons (locus coeruleus, nucleus vestibularis), medulla oblongata (nucleus tractus solitarii) and spinal cord, the glial cells exhibit specific copper staining.  

The changes were restricted to the pyriform cortex, amygdala, hippocampus (most pronounced in the CA1 sector), gyrus olfactorius lateralis, Bulbus olfactorius and tuberculum olfactorium.  

The substantia nigra and lamina plexiformis externa of the Bulbus olfactorius remained densely labeled even in the presence of 3000 nM of both enkephalins.  

The Bulbus olfactorius is correlated with the septum, schizocortex and hippocampus, but these correlations may be due mostly to the progression of these four structures in Megachiroptera and their regression in insectivorous Microchiroptera, and may not imply major direct functional relationships..  

LHRH-immunoreactive perikarya are located in the preoptic and in the septal areas, and in the Bulbus olfactorius; however, no LHRH-immunoreactive perikarya were found in the tuberal part of the hypothalamus. In addition to these structures, LHRH-containing fibers and terminals were also present in different regions of the limbic system, in the dorsal part of the hippocampus, in the tuberculum and Bulbus olfactorius, as well as in the optic lobe, nuclei commissurales tectales, organon subcommissurale, periaqueductal area, and pars ventralis mesencephali.  

In contrast, the microtumors and the enlarged tumors were recognized much more in number in the subependymal area of Bulbus olfactorius and tapetum where ventricular cavities closed in the young period of maturation ("closed ventricular area").  

Highest activity was was found in hypothalamus and Bulbus olfactorius, the least in pons and medulla.  

These findings suggest a possibility that muscimol and GABA-cetylester exert their inhibitory action through an activation of GABA-neurons localized in the Bulbus olfactorius, whereas baclofen appears to affect also neuronal systems outside this nervous structure..  

In the Bulbus olfactorius of man numerous myelinated nerve cell bodies occur in the stratum plexiforme internum and stratum granulosum internum.  

Included in this were, however, size increase of the structures Bulbus olfactorius and tuberculum olfactorium as well as size decrease to a different degree of the other olfactory centers.  

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