Hyperstriatum Intercalatus Superior

The avian telencephalon has two visual areas, (1) a 'Wulst' that consists of hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum intercalatus superior and hyperstriatum dorsale, and (2) the ectostriatum.  

A decrease (28-39%) is also seen in certain visual and auditory pathway areas but no effect was observed in other forebrain regions such as the hyperstriatum intercalatus superior (HIS).  

In particular, efferent pathways from the granular layer (Intercalated nucleus of the hyperstriatum accessorium, IHA), supragranular layer (hyperstriatum accessorium, HA), and infragranular layers (hyperstriatum intercalatus superior and/or hyperstriatum dorsale, HIS/HD) were investigated.  

The only exceptions were the hyperstriatum intercalatus superior, a small medial area in the hyperstriatum accessorium and in the dorsolateral cortex, and the dorsomedial part of the hippocampal complex, which were virtually devoid of staining.  

Somatosensory neurons are distributed in the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA), the hyperstriatum intercalatus superior (HIS) and the hyperstraitum dorsal (HD), mainly in HA.  

Telencephalic afferents of the DLP came from the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA) and a group of cells at the borderline between the hyperstriatum intercalatus superior (HIS) and the hyperstriatum dorsale (HD).  

Lesions in the other laminae of the Wulst (the hyperstriatum accessorium and the hyperstriatum intercalatus superior) had no effect on errors.  

In fact, dense CA afferents, most likely noradrenergic (NA) terminals, were found in the hyperstriatum intercalatus superior and the nucleus intercalatus hyperstriati accessorii; area which represent the terminal zone of the retino-thalamo-hyperstriatal pathway.  

Following either extensive or restricted injections of the enzyme into different regions of the latter, differential bilateral or unilateral projections onto the Wulst (hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum intercalatus superior, hyperstriatum dorsale) were demonstrated from the dorsal thalami complex (nucleus dorsolateralis anterior thalami, pars lateralis).  

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