The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery, Nevertheless, DI persisted and the adenohypophysis hypofunction did not recover.  

Here we investigated the endocrine cells in the adenohypophysis obtained from autopsies of 5 SARS patients.  

In normal adenohypophysis CEL was localized in GH, ACTH, and TSH cells.  

The labeled alkaline-phsphatase method with anti-GH (growth hormone) and anti-PRL (prolactin) as a primary antibody was used to detect somatotrophs and lactotrophs, in the midsagital sections of chicken adenohypophysis.  

In the endocrine system, spexin immunoreaction was detected in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, adenohypophysis, thyroid and parathyroid glands, adrenal cortex and medulla (mainly ganglionic cells), Leydig cells as well as in thecal, luteal and interstitial cells of the ovary.  

Recent studies of the developing rat adenohypophysis found that primordial cells co-expressed E- and N-cadherins, but that hormone-producing cells lost E-cadherin and ultimately possessed only N-cadherin.  

In the adenohypophysis, co-labeling for S-100 protein indicated that folliculo-stellate (FS) cells and marginal layer cells in Rathke's residual pouch have extensive labeling for AQP4.  

The secretion of luteinizing hormone from the adenohypophysis is reduced, mainly through hypothalamic inhibitory action of cannabinoids and alcohol on luteinizing hormone releasing hormone release from its nervous terminals in the median eminence. Cannabinoids also inhibit prolactin release from the lactotropes in the adenohypophysis acting locally and by increasing the release of hypothalamic dopamine mainly from tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons in the external layer of the median eminence. On the contrary, ethanol stimulates prolactin release from the adenohypophysis as well as oxytocin from the neurohypophysis.  

The present study investigated cellular immunopositivity for adrenaline (Adr), noradrenaline (Nad) and dopamine (DA) in the hypothalamus, adenohypophysis and adrenal medulla with special regard to fatal hypothermia (cold exposure) and hyperthermia (heat stroke) to examine forensic pathological significance. No such difference between hypothermia and hyperthermia was seen in the adenohypophysis.  

The crucial component of this system is the hypothalamus providing the endocrine regulation of key peripheral organs, and the adenohypophysis. GnRH, DA, and 5-HT apparently as dozens of other brain-derived SM appear to be capable of providing the endocrine influence on their peripheral targets like the adenohypophysis, gonads, kidney, heart, blood vessels, and the brain (endocrine autoregulation).  

These results indicated that AmphiBMP3/3b, a sole orthologue of vertebrate BMP3 and BMP3b, might antagonize ventralizing BMP2 orthologous signaling in embryonic development, play a role in the evolutionary precursors of adenohypophysis, as well as act in female ovary physiology in adult..  

Recent immunohistochemical studies of the rat adenohypophysis identified type-2 vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT2), a marker for glutamatergic neuronal phenotype, in high percentages of adenohypophysial gonadotrophs and thyrotrophs. Western blot analysis revealed a single major 60 kDa protein band in the adenohypophysis. A few cells in the adenohypophysis expressed both VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 immunoreactivities.  

Quantitative immunohistochemical methods were used to assess activation of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenocortical system at the level of its central component - the adenohypophysis - in the growing body during chronic exposure to psychoemotional stressors of different strengths.  

After injection of vehicle into the dorsomedial hypothalamus, injection of muscimol into the medial preoptic area elicited marked increases in heart rate, arterial pressure, body temperature, plasma ACTH, and locomotor activity and also increased c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, a region known to control the release of ACTH from the adenohypophysis.  

In the developing human pituitary gland, different developmental factors appeared in temporally and spatially restricted patterns, thus contributing to formation of different parts of the gland: adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis and associated mesenchyme. Some growth factors were not primarily involved in cell proliferation (TGF-ss, BMP-2/4 and GATA), but in differentiation of pituitary cells: TGF-ss, BMP-2/4 and GATA probably contributed to differentiation of cells in the mesenchyme at earlier stages, while their influence on differentiation of specific cell types in the adenohypophysis increased with development. Expression of EGF and VEGF indicated their involvement in proliferation of initially differentiated pituitary cells, and in subsequent differentiation of some cell types in the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis.  

We investigated whether and where vasoinhibins could be generated by cathepsin D in the adenohypophysis of rats and mice and whether their production could be gender dependent. Confocal and electron microscopy showed the colocalization of cathepsin D and PRL within rat adenohypophyseal cells and secretory granules, and a subcellular fraction of rat adenohypophysis enriched in secretory granules contained cathepsin D activity able to generate vasoinhibins from PRL. Of note, vasoinhibins were absent in the adenohypophysis of mice lacking the cathepsin D gene but not in wild-type mice.  

In previous works, we described the influence of the hormonal milieu of proestrus on the orexinergic system and we found that orexin receptor 1 expression in the hypothalamus, but not other neural areas, and the adenohypophysis was under the influence of oestradiol and the time of the day.  

The present study investigated postmortem serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of CgA in comparison with those of catecholamines, and also cellular CgA immunopositivity in the hypothalamus, adenohypophysis and adrenal medulla to assess forensic pathological significance. Cellular CgA immunopositivity in the hypothalamus, adenohypophysis and adrenal medulla varied extensively among cases in each group.  

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-containing neurons directly innervate the adenohypophysis in the teleost pituitary.  

The anterior pituitary gland, or adenohypophysis (AH), represents the key component of the vertebrate hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis, where it functions at the interphase of the nervous and endocrine system to regulate basic body functions like growth, metabolism and reproduction. For developmental biologists, the adenohypophysis serves as an excellent model system for the studies of organogenesis and differential cell fate specification. In addition, zebrafish data will be discussed in comparison with current understanding of adenohypophysis development in mouse..  

Kisspeptin colocalised with alpha-MSH-immunopositive cells in the intermediate lobe and, in 50% of the monkeys, with ACTH-immuunopositive cells in the periphery of the adenohypophysis.  

We report a rapidly recurring folliculostellate cell tumor of the adenohypophysis in a 63-year-old woman. Morphologically the tumor had the typical appearance of a spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis. The spindle cell oncocytoma (SCO) of the adenohypophysis is a relatively recently described entity and a new addition to the fourth edition of the WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System.  

The immunoreactivities of ARIP2 were mainly localized at myocardial cells of heart, Leydig cells in testis, macrophages and epithelial cells of bronchus in lung, renal tubule and collecting tubule, pancreatic islet, adrenal gland, adenohypophysis and hypothalamus by immunohistochemical staining.  

Cranial ectodermal placodes are thickenings in the ectoderm that subsequently ingress or invaginate to make important contributions to cranial ganglia, including epibranchial and trigeminal ganglia, and sensory structures, the ear, nose, lens, and adenohypophysis.  

Initial examination of the pituitary biopsy showed diffuse lymphocytic infiltration of the adenohypophysis and absent placental alkaline phosphatase expression, leading to a diagnosis of hypophysitis and glucocorticoid treatment.  

IGF-I peptide, which is probably produced in hypothalamic perikarya, is present in axons of the neurohypophysis, and IGF-I mRNA and peptide are present in the adenohypophysis in adrenocorticotrophic hormone cells, melanocyte-stimulating hormone cells, with interindividual differences in growth hormone cells, and, starting with puberty, in gonadotrophic hormone (GTH) cells.  

Half of the adenohypophysis was not necrotic, and necrosis was not found in the pituitary stalk..  

The present study analyzed mRNA and protein expressions of OX1R and OX2R in adenohypophysis (AP) and neurohypophysis (NP) of cycling pigs.  

TSH immunoreactivity in adenohypophysis was quantitatively analyzed. TSH immunopositivity in adenohypophysis was significantly lower in cases of hypothermia, but exhibited a large case-to-case variation for poisoning.  

Positivity was slightly higher in adenohypophysis, adrenal medullar, and pancreatic islet cells (approximately 50-80%) than in the thyroid and submandibular glands (approximately 30-60%); however, a large case difference was observed in hypothalamic CgA immunopositivity (0-100%).  

In order to examine the function of the adenohypophysis during brain death, levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were investigated during forensic autopsy. The immunoreactivities of ACTH, GH, and TSH in the adenohypophysis were observed and analyzed with electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the appearance of peripheral adenohypophysis with each hormone.  

BACKGROUND: Pituitary carcinomas are rare neuroendocrine tumors affecting the adenohypophysis.  

Spindle cell oncocytoma (SCO) of the adenohypophysis is a recently defined pituitary tumor mimicking a non-functioning macroadenoma and composed of mitochondrion rich tumor cells, positive for S-100, vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen and galectin-3 but lacking cytokeratins, pituitary hormones, and neuroendocrine markers.  

LPS also induced an increase in PPARgamma immunohistochemical staining in the hypothalamus (1.3-fold), adenohypophysis (1.3-fold), adrenal cortex (1.4-fold) and adrenal medulla (1.6-fold) (P<0.05).  

Our previous results show that leptin, as well as nitric oxide (NO) and some antioxidants (histidine dipeptides - HDP) change the secretion of gonadotrophins from ovine adenohypophysis cells in vitro. adenohypophysis cells were cultured in McCoy 5A medium with GnRH (4 x 10(-9) M) and 10(-10)-10(-5) M/l of leptin, respectively.  

In ghrelin morphants the expression of GH was abolished in zebrafish somatotropes, whereas the expression patterns of the other key molecules involved in hypothalamic-pituitary development and distinct pituitary hormones genes remain largely intact at the appropriate time during zebrafish adenohypophysis development. Moreover, by analyzing the efficiencies of the ghrelin morphants rescue experiments with various forms of exogenous mutant ghrelin mRNAs, we also demonstrated the essentiality of the form acyl-ghrelin on GH stimulation during zebrafish adenohypophysis development.  

We recently found that primordial cells in the developing rat adenohypophysis co-expressed E- and N-cadherins, but endocrine cells lost E-cadherin to possess only N-cadherin at certain embryonic stages. In the developing adenohypophysis, proliferation and differentiation of hormone-producing cells have been reported to be regulated by a variety of external humoral factors.  

An interstice or cavity between the 2 layers was found on the surface of the adenohypophysis.  

Quantitative immunohistochemical investigation was undertaken to detect the peculiarities of the activation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenocortical system at the level of its central unit--the adenohypophysis--in the growing organism under the conditions of chronic exposure to psycho-emotional stressors of varying intensities.  

RESULTS: We have analyzed with microarrays five tissues from the endocrine axis (hypothalamus, adenohypophysis, thyroid gland, gonads and fat tissue) of 16 pigs from both sexes pertaining to four extreme breeds (Duroc, Large White, Iberian and a cross with SinoEuropean hybrid line).  

Although several signal pathways and regulatory genes have been implicated in adenohypophysis ontogenesis, little is known about hypothalamic-neurohypophysial development or when the HP matures and becomes functional. We also analyzed expression patterns of these genes and found that several are expressed in the embryonic and larval hypothalamus, neurohypophysis, and/or adenohypophysis.  

Delayed angiospasm was caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage into basal cisterns due to hyperactivation of neuroendocrine systems of adenohypophysis and aldosterone.  

Here we show distinct temporal requirements for Hh signaling in endocrine cell differentiation and describe a dynamic Gli transcriptional response code that interprets these Hh signals within the developing adenohypophysis. Later in development, gli1 expression is maintained throughout the adenohypophysis while gli2a and gli2b expression are restricted to the pars intermedia.  

Luteinizing hormone-gonadotrophs are of numerous shapes and distributed throughout the adenohypophysis, with densely populated regions on the margins of pars distalis.  

Six new entities were codified: angiocentric glioma (AG); papillary glioneuronal tumour (PGNT); rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of the fourth ventricle (RGNT); papillary tumour of the pineal region (PTPR); spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis (SCO); and pituicytoma.  

From CS 20 to 23, the RP epithelium formed the structural-functional units of the adenohypophysis, i.e., the epithelial cords, by invagination..  

The adenohypophysis (AH) of juvenile pirarucu (Arapaima gigas), a representative species of the Osteoglossomorpha (bonytongue fishes, one of the oldest living groups of the teleosts), was studied using histochemical and immunocytochemical methods.  

Their dynamic appearance was analyzed in the Rathke's pouch (future adenohypophysis), mesenchyme, and in the developing neurohypophysis. While caspase-3 dependent pathway of cell death participated in morphogenesis of the adenohypophysis and associated connective tissue, p53-mediated apoptosis most likely participates in morphogenesis of all parts of the gland, including neurohypophysis. With advancing development, the positivity to bcl-2 protein increased in the cells of the adenohypophysis, while it decreased in the neurohypophysis.  

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36-amino acid member of the pancreatic polypeptide family, was found to be present by immunohistochemistry in the bovine adenohypophysis. NPY mRNA expression was confirmed in the adenohypophysis by RT-PCR. These results indicate that endogenous NPY is present in the bovine somatotroph and may act as an endocrine intercellular mediator in the adenohypophysis..  

METHODS: The developing adenohypophysis area of rat fetuses was studied at the embryonic stage 13.5 (gestational day) for apoptotic and proliferative cell activities using histological serial sections. RESULTS: A high cell proliferation rate was observed throughout the adenohypophysis. CONCLUSION: We can clearly show an increasing number of apoptotic events only at the basic fusion sides of the adenohypophysis as well as in the opening region of this organ. Apoptotic destruction of epithelial cells at the basal cones of the adenohypophysis begins even before differentiation of the adenohypophyseal cells and their contact with the neurohypophysis. In early stages of development, thus, apoptotic activity of the adenohypophysis is restricted to the basal areas mentioned. In our test animals, the adenohypophysis develops after closure of the anterior neuroporus..  

The adenohypophysis is derived from a structure called the Rathke's pouch, which is an invagination of the hypophyseal placode. Hedgehog (Hh) and retinoic acid (RA) signals as well as several transcription factors have been suggested to play a role in the development of the adenohypophysis. Moreover, Shh continues to be expressed in tissues surrounding the prospective adenohypophysis, and Ptc2 is expressed in prospective hypophyseal cells.  

More typical weights were in the range of 0.95-2.35 g (mean=1.65+/-0.70 g) The cetacean pituitary consisted of two distinct parts, the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis, which were separated by a thin fibrous membrane in all species examined, in contrast to terrestrial mammals in which the parts are apposed and joined through a pars intermedia.  

Structural constituents of the median eminence, adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis contain elements of glutamatergic transmission, including glutamate receptors and enzymes of the glutamate/glutamine cycle.  

The primordium of the mammalian adenohypophysis derived from Rathke's pouch (RP) is known to be formed by oral ectoderm invagination. However, in the early phase of pituitary development, the detailed process by which the oral ectoderm develops into the adenohypophysis remains largely unknown.  

MRI investigation of the sella turcica revealed a pituitary microadenoma on the right side of the adenohypophysis He was treated with alpha and subsequent beta blockers after the diagnosis of PHEO and PCS was made.  

Later however, loss of Notch signaling in mind bomb (mib) mutant embryos or by DAPT treatment leads to increased numbers of lactotropes and loss of corticotropes in the anterior pars distalis (APD), increased number of thyrotropes and loss of somatotrope cell types in the posterior pars distalis (PPD), and fewer melanotropes in the posterior region of the adenohypophysis, the pars intermedia (PI).  

The anterior pituitary gland (adenohypophysis) comprises anterior and intermediate lobes (the pars distalis and pars intermedia) arising from placodal ectoderm at the anterior neural ridge.  

Immunohistochemistry was used to show the expression of several regulatory peptides, namely Angiotensin-II, Neurotensin and Galanin, at successive gestational stages and their co-localization with hormones in the human fetal adenohypophysis.  

The vertebrate adenohypophysis forms as a placode at the anterior margin of the neural plate, requiring both hedgehog (Hh) and fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) mediated cell-cell signaling for induction and survival of endocrine cell types. Using small molecule inhibitors to modulate signaling levels during zebrafish development we show that graded Hh and Fgf signaling independently help establish the two subdomains of the adenohypophysis, the anteriorly located pars distalis (PD) and the posterior pars intermedia (PI). Together our data show that graded Hh and Fgf signaling independently direct induction of the PD and PI and help establish endocrine cell fates along the anterior/posterior axis of the zebrafish adenohypophysis.  

Well known intrinsic signals of the adenohypophysis such as the K(50)paired-like homeodomain proteins regulate commitment, proliferation, differential specification and maintenance of adenohypophyseal cells.  

gp130-Related cytokines such as interleukin-6 and leukemia-inhibitory factor (LIF) act on the adenohypophysis in a paracrine manner, affecting both its differentiation and the function of specific cell types, notably the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) cells.  

gp130-Related cytokines such as interleukin-6 and leukemia-inhibitory factor (LIF) act on the adenohypophysis in a paracrine manner, affecting both its differentiation and the function of specific cell types, notably the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) cells.  

Substantial staining occurred in the adrenal cortex, lymph nodes, and linings of the gastrointestinal tract, the urinary bladder and uterus, and (for rat only) in the adenohypophysis, bone marrow, thymus, and trigeminal ganglia.  

The present study was carried out to detail the cellular localization of leptin (Lep) and the leptin receptor (LepR) in the bovine adenohypophysis. Both the common short isoform (OBRa) and the long isoform (OBRb) of LepR mRNA were expressed in the bovine adenohypophysis. The findings on Lep and LepR in the adenohypophysial cells indicate that Lep may regulate gonadotroph function through autocrine/paracrine pathway in the bovine adenohypophysis..  

Localization of serotonin fibers in the rat adenohypophysis.  

This gene, which is present in a single copy in the genome, is homologous to Pit-1 genes of vertebrates that play key roles in the development of the adenohypophysis. From data currently available for hemichordates, amphioxus and ascidians, the best supported homologs for the vertebrate adenohypophysis are the preoral ciliary organ of hemichordates, preoral organ/Hatschek's pit of amphioxus and the neural gland/duct complex of ascidians. Better insights into pituitary evolution will require additional information: for invertebrate deuterostomes, more of the key pituitary genes in hemichordates and tunicates need to be studied; for the more basal groups vertebrates, it will be important to determine whether the source of the adenohypophysis is endodermal or ectodermal and to demonstrate what, if any, contribution mesodermal head coeloms might make to the developing pituitary..  

The plasma GH concentration was assayed by the radioimmunoassay method, and immunoreactivity of GH in the adenohypophysis was determined by immunohistochemistry. The percentage of GH-positive cells in the adenohypophysis and the density of immunoreactive material in these cells decreased significantly in genistein-infused ewes, compared to the control, indicating diminished hormone storage.  

The clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features of the lesions posed a differential diagnosis between a null cell adenoma and a silent corticotroph adenoma (Type II); on the basis of immunohistochemical stains for cytokeratin and adenohypophysis cell lineage markers, tumor behavior and ultrastructural studies we concluded for the second.  

In experiments performed on rats with hypothyrosis, the blood serum indexes (the level of triodthyronine, thyroxin, thyrothropic hormone of adenohypophysis, the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, nitric oxide) and the level of iodine excretion with urine before and after correction of iodine deficiency by "Iodide-100" drug has been studied.  

The adenohypophysis of vertebrates receives peptide hormones from the hypothalamus and secretes hormones that regulate diverse physiologic processes in peripheral organs. The adenohypophysis-mediated endocrine system is widely conserved across vertebrates but not invertebrates. We detected all human paralogons (series of paralogous regions) formed in early vertebrates as traces of 2R-WGD, and examined the relationship between 2R-WGD and the evolution of genes essential to the adenohypophysis-mediated endocrine system. These results suggest that 2R-WGD played an important role in generating genes encoding adenohypophyseal TFs, hormones, and their receptors for increasing the diversification of hormone repertoire in the adenohypophysis-mediated endocrine system of vertebrates..  

Herein, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of clusterin in non-neoplastic adenohypophysis of human autopsy subjects and pituitary adenomas. We also investigated the association of clusterin increase with age in adenohypophysis of autopsy subjects. Immunohistochemically, clusterin was found positive in the cytoplasm of all adenoma cases, and in the cytoplasm of parenchymal cells, stellate cells, mixed cell follicles and in colloidal material inside of the follicles of non-neoplastic adenohypophysis as well. In addition, in non-neoplastic adenohypophysis, a significant increase in clusterin expression levels between young (or=61 years) subjects (p < 0.00001, analysis of variance [ ANOVA]) was found. In addition to clusterin accumulation, presence of calcification (p < 0.045, ANOVA) and presence of large follicles with colloid accumulation (p < 0.004, ANOVA) were also statistically significant factors related to aging in non-neoplastic adenohypophysis. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that clusterin expression was found in non-neoplastic adenohypophysis and in upregulated amounts in pituitary adenomas.  

Newly codified entities include atypical choroid plexus papilloma, angiocentric glioma, extraventricular neurocytoma, papillary glioneuronal tumour, rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of the fourth ventricle, papillary tumour of the pineal region, anaplastic hemangiopericytoma, Ewing sarcoma - PNET, pituicytoma, and spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis.  

A developmental study of the adenohypophysis of the mouse was carried out in response to several as yet unanswered questions about its organogenesis and differentiation.  

A histological and immunochemical study of adenohypophysis development in two bird species: chicken (Gallus gallus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was carried out, focussing firstly morphologically on the origin of its different lobes, then secondly on the differentiation of hormone-producing cells from the adenohypophysial anlage and their involvement in the differentiation of three calcium-binding proteins. The results of the morphological development study show how the origin of the adenohypophysis in chicken is totally ectodermic, whilst in Japanese quail the endoderm, in the form of Sessel's pouch, participates in forming the rostral zone of the anterior lobe. After studying the organogenesis and spatio/temporal differentiation of the hormone-producing cells proceeding from the adenohypophysial anlage, a regionalization model is proposed for the origin of the different lobes and cell types as well as time sequence, fundamentally the origin of cell regionalization in the adult adenohypophysis.  

Surprisingly, analysis of K5CDK4 and K5CDK2 transgenic mouse embryos showed CDK4 and CDK2 expression not only in the expected tissues, but also in the adenohypophysis. We show that transgenic expression of CDKs in the embryonic oral ectoderm is specifically retained in undifferentiated cells from the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis.  

The pituicytes protruded from the neurohypophysis as far as the adenohypophysis. In the adenohypophysis, pituicytic processes were intermingled with cells of the pars intermedia and pars distalis, though being more numerous in the former.  

Dopamine and GABA concentrations in the median eminence or in the adenohypophysis remained unmodified by moderate beer or ethanol consumption.  

AQP4 was localized in the supporting cells of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis.  

Histologic examination revealed compact arrangement of cardiac muscle fibers and cytoplasmic vacuolation in the adenohypophysis.  

adenohypophysis could be resected, and it showed infiltration of mature lymphocytes.  

During CS 20-23, structural-functional units of adenohypophysis--epithelial cords--are formed due to invagination of RP epithelium..  

The physiologic function of ADM is unknown, but it could act as a paracrine or autocrine factor in the adenohypophysis..  

GALP is produced in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, an area containing, amongst other neuron types, two populations of neurons in which we were interested: a population of GALP-containing neurons which regulate energy balance and reproduction, and a second population consisting of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons which suppress prolactin secretion from the adenohypophysis.  

No pathbreaking finding could be ensured on levels of internal medicine, toxicology, neurology as well as neurophysiology including a transient aetiologically uncertain partial insufficiency of the adenohypophysis.  

By 48 h larval stage, the expression is shifted to the preoral pit (a homologous organ to the vertebrate adenohypophysis) and persists until at least 72 h larval stage.  

Ethanol feeding of prepubertal rats changed significantly the 24-h pattern of expression of NOS1, NOS2 and HO-1 in the adenohypophysis and augmented NOS2 and HO-1 mRNA levels. One of the mechanisms by which ethanol augments oxidative damage in the adenohypophysis may include overproduction of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide..  

However, only the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus, the site of the master circadian biological clock, and the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis contain melatonin receptors in the majority of species.  

The serum biochemical indexes (level of triiodthyronine, thyroxin, thyrothropic hormone of adenohypophysis, level of cholesterol, triglycerides) and the level of iodine excretion with urine in rats with hypothyrosis corrected by "Iodid-100" and along with excessive intake of chlorine and fluorine ions into the organism had been studied.  

The adenohypophysis of Nhlh2(-/-) mice was hypoplastic although it contained a full complement of the five anterior pituitary cell types. These results indicate that Nhlh2 plays a role in the development and functional maintenance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis at least at two levels: 1) in the hypothalamus by regulating the number and distribution of GnRH-1 neurons and, 2) in the developing and mature adenohypophysis..  

For the first time, we are reporting on calretinin-positive cells in the rostral and proximal pars distalis of the adenohypophysis.  

Their initial pituitary MR imaging examinations showed identical findings: an enlarged adenohypophysis, with striking hypointensity on T2-weighted images and slight hyperintensity on T1-weighted images.  

versicolor petroleum ether extracts (CVPE) on the adenohypophysis androgen receptor level in mature castrated male rats. The androgen receptor (AR) in adenohypophysis of mature castrated male rats was determined by the immunohistochemistry method and the level of serum testosterone (T) were determined by the radio-immunoassay after ig CVPE for 21 days. CONCLUSION: The results show that CVPE can increase the adenohypophysis androgen receptor and serum T level in mature castrated male rats.  

In this paper we investigated the morphological aspects of the adenohypophysis as well as the total number and size of GH-granulated cells using design-based stereological methods in a limited number of dystrophic and healthy golden retrievers. GH-cells were larger (32.4%) in dystrophic dogs than in healthy animals (p=0.01) and they occupied a larger portion (62.5%) of the adenohypophysis volume (p=0.01) without changes in either adenohypophysis volume (p=0.893) or total number of GH-granulated cells (p=0.869). Furthermore, these granules in dystrophic animals occupied a larger proportion of GH-granulated cell volume (66.9%; p=0.008) as well as of all GH-cells in the whole pars distalis of adenohypophysis (77.3%; p=0.035), albeit IGF-1 serum concentration was lower in severe cases.  

Proper gonadal function requires coordinated (feedback) interactions between the gonads, adenohypophysis, and brain: the gonads elaborate sex steroids (progestins, androgens, and estrogens) and proteins (inhibin-activin family) during gamete development.  

The pars tuberalis (PT) of the adenohypophysis expresses a high density of melatonin receptors and is thought to be a crucial relay for the actions of melatonin on seasonal rhythmicity of prolactin secretion by the pars distalis (PD).  

The fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumours of the central nervous system, published in 2007, lists several new entities, including angiocentric glioma, papillary glioneuronal tumour, rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of the fourth ventricle, papillary tumour of the pineal region, pituicytoma and spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis.  

We review adenohypophysis, lens, and olfactory placode formation and how gene expression patterns, cell positions, and cell fates in the anterior neural plate and anterior placodal field correlate in zebrafish and other vertebrates.  

The extent of infarction in group II ranged from focal to sub-total necrosis involving 90% of the adenohypophysis.  

The pituitary gland of vertebrates consists of two major parts, the neurohypophysis (NH) and the adenohypophysis (AH).  

Crooke's cells are nonneoplastic corticotroph cells found in the adenohypophysis of patients who have an endogenous or exogenous excess of glucocorticoids.  

Amphioxus PSEDN genes are expressed in highly stage- and tissue-specific patterns (sometimes conspicuously correlated with the local intensity of cell proliferation) in the gastrular organizer, notochord, somites, anterior central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, pharyngeal endoderm, and the likely homolog of the vertebrate adenohypophysis.  

Magnetic resonance images showed diffuse encephalic metastatic lesions, with a thickened pituitary stalk, loss of high signal intensity of posterior lobe and a mildly enlarged and inhomogeneously enhanced adenohypophysis.  

The pituitary gland is composed of two distinct entities: the adenohypophysis, including the anterior and intermediate lobes, and the neurohypophysis, known as the posterior lobe. In addition, this hypoplastic pituitary gland (adenohypophysis) lacks the intermediate lobe and exhibits the features of the anterior lobe only. anterior lobe specification during the adenohypophysis development.  

Images of all series were assessed visually for enhancement of the arteries, the neurohypophysis, and the adenohypophysis. The enhancement pattern of the neurohypophysis was distinguished adequately from that of the adenohypophysis in five dogs that were scanned with 1 mm collimation and pitch of 2, but the difference was less discernable when the other protocols were used. Using this protocol, with the specific scanner used, the neurohypophysis, the adenohypophysis, and the surrounding vascular structures are adequately visualized..  

Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis characterized by multifocal follicular lymphoid cell infiltrates with germinal centers, thyroid acinar atrophy and pituitary cell hyperplasia/hypertrophy of the adenohypophysis was detected in a vehicle control, 4-year-old female Cynomolgus macaque in a routine toxicology study.  

This cell type predominated in the adenohypophysis in adults with developing gonads and thus appeared to be involved in the regulation of gonadal functions. The second cell type was found in the adenohypophysis regardless of the developmental state of the gonads.  

In the control rats, the radioactivity was accumulated to the greatest extent in the neurohypophysis, adenohypophysis and kidney.  

Lymphocytic hypophysitis (LyH) is an uncommon intrasellar lesion characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the adenohypophysis.  

Recent molecular work, performed on close relatives of the vertebrates, demonstrated that some sensory placodes (namely the adenohypophysis, the olfactory, and accoustico-lateralis placodes) first evolved at the base of the chordate lineage, while others might be specific to vertebrates.  

In addition, in GTH cells of meso-adenohypophysis after the breeding season, there were many endocrine particles in triploids, while those endocrine particles were released from the cells in allotetraploids and diploids.  

RESULTS: We describe in detail the appearance of the adenohypophysis, the pituitary stalk and the neurohypophysis, correlations with hormone deficiencies, the abnormalities that may be associated and progression over time for each condition.  

called relatively small ACTH-immunoreactive (ACTH-IR) cells observed in basophil invasion "proopiomelanocortin (POMC) cells," and these cells were supposed to be different from larger ACTH-IR cells in human adenohypophysis.  

The aim of the present study was to investigate histochemically the localization of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) cells and the number of TSH cells in adenohypophysis of ovariectomized adult females, intact females at estrous and diestrous phase of sexual cycles and castrated and non-castrated adult male rats. In adenohypophysis of ovariectomized rats, their numbers were less than that of intacts in estrous, but higher than that of found in diestrous phases.  

The present study investigated alterations in the adenohypophysis of middle-aged drug abusers (40-60 years of age), using clusterin-containing mixed cell-follicles as the indicator, in which clusterin (apolipoprotein J) is a multifunctional glycoprotein related to neurodegeneration.  

Regular morphology of the colloid follicles, overall distribution in the adenohypophysis and dense nature of deposition of the colloid suggest the accumulation of this type may be the secretory products of both granulated and agranulated pituitary cell types.  

The objective of the present study was to investigate the histopathological changes in the adenohypophysis in elderly subjects using autopsy materials.  

In early larvae, expression is detectable in the floor of the diencephalon, notochord, tail bud, forming somites, pharynx, and ciliated pit (a presumed homolog of the vertebrate adenohypophysis).  

Magnetic resonance was indicative of adenohypophysis agenesis with maintained neurohypophysis.  

Since many macromolecular structures are implicated in the secretory activity of the pituitary gland, this imaging technique has recently been used for the study of the normal adenohypophysis and the pre-operative and post-operative evaluation of pituitary adenomas.  

Marshall, began the experimental studies in order to demonstrate a vascular connection between the hypothalamus and the adenohypophysis, with neuropeptides as messengers.  

IGF-I peptide occurred in both neuro- and adenohypophysis but IGF-I gene expression was mainly restricted to the adenohypophysis. In the adenohypophysis, both IGF-I mRNA and peptide were present in the majority of ACTH cells in all individuals investigated.  

Clinically unexpected findings included a paucity of B cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs, emperipolesis-like (penetration of one cell by another) abnormalities in the adenohypophysis, fatty infiltration of the cardiac right ventricular wall, pulmonary emphysema, testicular hypoplasia with atrophy and azospermia, and clustering of small cerebral vessels.  

Immunostaining for Noc2 labeled endocrine cells in the adrenal medulla and adenohypophysis, pancreatic islet cells, thyroid parafollicular cells, and gut endocrine cells, supporting the notion that Noc2 is a Rab effector protein shared by amine/peptide-secreting endocrine cells.  

The adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis originate from the combination of 2 events occurring during the fourth week of life, the development of Rathke pouch and of a neuroectodermal evagination of tissue from the floor of the diencephalon.  

An electron microscopy immunocytochemical study was performed to determine the expression pattern of growth hormone (GH) in mosaic mutant mice adenohypophysis. Mosaic mice adenohypophysis contained growth hormone cells which have distinctive GH labeled secretory granules at the level seen in control animals. Additionally, the existence of large intracellular, electron-lucent spaces, with remnant cellular material in parenchyma of mosaic mutant mice adenohypophysis could suggest intensive process of GH-cell destruction.  

In light of the absence of autoimmunity, the normal adenohypophysis and thyroid responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, central hypothyroidism is suspected and could explain LT4 and high TSH levels.  

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and peptides are abundant in the adenohypophysis, but their role in pituitary function has not yet been elucidated.  

The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the clinical picture in 4 subjects with APA and multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD) was different compared to the one observed in a selected control group consisting of 7 MPHD individuals with hypoplastic (and not aplastic) adenohypophysis and pituitary stalk interruption syndrome. Conclusions: a) if compared with a selected cohort of MPHD patients with both adenohypophysis hypoplasia and pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, the ones with APA show an earlier and more severe picture of hypopituitarism; b) mutations in several transcription factors that are known to be essential for the development of Rathke's pouch are not necessarily found in humans with APA..  

Immunocytochemical studies of the rat adenohypophysis identified a cell population that exhibits immunoreactivity for type-2 vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT2), a marker for glutamatergic neuronal phenotype. Quantitative in situ hybridization studies have established that the administration of a single dose of 17-beta-estradiol (20 microg/kg; sc) to ovariectomized rats significantly elevated VGLUT2 mRNA in the adenohypophysis 16 h postinjection. The presence of the glutamate marker VGLUT2 in gonadotrope and thyrotrope cells, and its up-regulation by estrogen or hypothyroidism, address the possibility that endocrine cells of the adenohypophysis may cosecrete glutamate with peptide hormones in an estrogen- and thyroid status-regulated manner.  

Pituitary autotransplantation eliminates direct vascular contact between the hypothalamus and the adenohypophysis, and enables us to study the role of the hypothalamus in regulating adenohypophysial endocrine activity.  

Two tumors were excised at repeat surgery because of persistent hypercortisolism within 14 d of negative exploration of the adenohypophysis. In cases of CD in which an adenoma is not identified in the adenohypophysis and in patients with persistent hypercortisolism after complete or partial excision of the anterior lobe, tumor within the neurohypophysis should be considered; selective adenomectomy of a neurohypophyseal, ACTH-secreting tumor can produce long-term remission..  

BACKGROUND: Pituitary carcinomas are extremely rare tumors of the adenohypophysis.  

Endocrine cells of the adenohypophysis exhibited IGF-I mRNA at 28 DPF and IGF-I immunoreactivity at 40 DPF.  

The pituitary was characterised by a close interdigitating neighbourhood of neurohypophysis (PN) and adenohypophysis.  

The levels of gene and protein expressions of GnRH, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SS) in hypothalamus, and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) in adenohypophysis as well as insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in metaphysis were determined with real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).  

Diseases of adenohypophysis present with gonadotropic insufficiency and prolactin increase.  

Occasionally, they may become large enough to cause typical symptoms and signs headaches, adenohypophysis disfunction, diabetes insipidus and visual field defects.  

Moreover, specific cellular populations in the adenohypophysis, pancreatic islets, intestine and gonads showed intense Trim37 staining.  

Here, in identifying the molecular nature of the pia mutation, we investigate the role of the zebrafish achaete-scute homologue ascl1a during development of the adenohypophysis, an endocrine derivative of the placodal ectoderm. Shortly after the failed first phase of cell differentiation, the adenohypophysis of pia mutants displays a transient phase of cell death, which affects most, but not all adenohypophyseal cells. During normal development, ascl1a is expressed in the adenohypophysis and the adjacent diencephalon, the source of Fgf3 signals. Together, this suggests that Ascl1a might act downstream of diencephalic Fgf3 signaling to mediate some of the effects of Fgf3 on the developing adenohypophysis..  

As a consequence neuronal fibres traversed to the adenohypophysis.  

In contrast to other organs, adenohypophyseal cells of eya1 mutants do not become apoptotic, and the adenohypophysis remains at rather normal size.  

We used the irradiation of the adenohypophysis with narrow proton beams energy 200 MeV. The goal of irradiation of adenohypophysis with protons is the normalization of its hormonal activity and elimination of factors stimulating growth of tumor cells in case of dishormonal cancer.  

Pituitary adenomas are derived of adenohypophysis cells, depending of cellular line, clinical and biochemical characteristics are different.  

We discussed the proper diagnostic procedures and immunohistochemical profile in pathological lesions of endocrine system (thyroid and adrenal gland, adenohypophysis, neuroendocrine tumours and some hormones-secreting tumours of gonads)..  

In polypteriform fish, only proopiomelanocortin (POMC) has been identified so far in the adenohypophysis, which is surprising in view of their evolutionary importance.  

Microscopically, whole-mounted sections revealed a well-circumscribed nodule with no fibrous capsule, located mainly in the neurohypophysis and partially compressing the adenohypophysis.  

BACKGROUND: Prolactinoma is a pituitary adenoma originating from prolactin-secreting epithelial cells of the adenohypophysis.  

These findings suggest the usefulness of immunohistochemical investigation of the adenohypophysis for estimating the time of death and endocrinologic evaluation in decomposed cadavers..  

In this study, we report that bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) is expressed in the corticotrophs of human normal adenohypophysis and its expression is reduced in corticotrophinomas obtained from Cushing's patients compared with the normal pituitary.  

Co-localization experiments in the gastroenteropancreatic system demonstrated that the normal CST-producing cells are delta cells, while in the adenohypophysis no preferential co-localization of CST with any of the pituitary hormones was observed.  

Primary cell cultures of adenohypophysis from female Wistar rats were studied in serum free conditions.  

The evolutionary origin of vertebrate placodes remains controversial because divergent morphologies in urochordates, cephalochordates and vertebrates make it difficult to recognize organs that are clearly homologous to placode-derived features, including the olfactory organ, adenohypophysis, lens, inner ear, lateral line and cranial ganglia. The larvacean urochordate Oikopleura dioica possesses organs that morphologically resemble the vertebrate olfactory organ and adenohypophysis.  

Fasting did not affect LR mRNA, but increased SOCS-3 mRNA in the adenohypophysis, suggesting that heightened responsiveness of fasted cows to leptin is not dependent upon alterations in LR or SOCS-3 mRNA in the adenohypophysis..  

In both species, three different types of immunoreactive cells were detected in the adenohypophysis. In both species of hagfish, GTH-like cells were relatively abundant, and were distributed throughout the adenohypophysis, whereas GH/PRL-like and ACTH-like cells were few in number in the adenohypophysis.  

"Corticotrophs" of the rat adenohypophysis as revealed by electron microscopy.  

tauricus may be the result of prolonged and more intensive production of somatotropin by adenohypophysis. Side effects of adenohypophysis activation are resulted from changes in S.  

In situ hybridization indicated that FSHbeta and LHbeta are expressed by separate cells of the proximal pars distalis of the adenohypophysis, differently from the situation in mammals.  

During the first 2 months of life the adenohypophysis demonstrates high signal. On dynamic contrast-enhanced studies, the posterior pituitary lobe enhances simultaneously with the straight sinus, and the adenohypophysis later, but within 30 s. In genetically determined dysfunctional states, the adenohypophysis may be normal, hypoplastic, or enlarged. A small hypo-intense adenohypophysis is found in iron overload states and is often associated with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.  

Indeed, classical hypothalamic hormones (e.g., gonadotropin-releasing hormone [ GnRH], growth hormone-releasing hormone [ GHRH], somatostatin, etc.) may be released into the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal vasculature, travel to the adenohypophysis and there stimulate or inhibit secretion of hormones. Alternatively, some amino acids and peptides exert direct stimulatory or inhibitory effects on the adenohypophysis, thereby impacting hormone secretion. However, the EOP also inhibited LH release by direct action on the adenohypophysis. For example, NPY, orexin-B, and ghrelin increased basal GH secretion and modulated the GH response to GHRH, at least in part, by direct action on the adenohypophysis.  

The adenohypophysis is a morphologically distinct structure by 24 hpf, whereas the neurohypophysis remains indistinct until 72 hpf.  

Non-hormone-secreting cells in human adenohypophysis have been designated as either follicular cells (FC) or folliculostellate cells (FSC).  

Endocrinological evaluation revealed neurohypophyseal dysfunction without the adenohypophysis being affected.  

Neurosecretory parvocellular neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) exercise considerable influence over the adenohypophysis and thus play a critical role in neuroendocrine regulation.  

There have been performed morphometric and immunohistochemical examinations of adenohypophysis of 15 females who died of massive post-partum hemorrhages. Hyperproduction of ACTH by the basophilic cells of the adenohypophysis revealed by immunohistochemical analysis is a compensatory mechanism under the conditions of acute adrenal insufficiency inherent in any shock including posthemorrhagic..  

Our group has already demonstrated the presence of guanylin-immunoreactive cells in the pars tuberalis of male rat adenohypophysis.  

Immunoreactive (IR) GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus and LH cells in the adenohypophysis were localized by immunohistochemistry.  

The adenohypophysis regulates, probably through gonadotropic hormones, proliferation of somatic and germ cells in the gonads during chick embryo development..  

These results indicate that the relative proportion of LH isoforms secreted by the adenohypophysis differ by stage of estrous cycle.  

PPII expression and activity are stringently regulated in adenohypophysis, and in rat brain, during kindling stimulation that activates TRHergic neurons.  

The article examines the features of histological changes in corticotropocytes of adenohypophysis in rats of various age during simultaneous chronic action of nitrates and physical training.  

In adult stargazer, PACAP-like immunoreactive (PACAP-LI) nerve fibers and endings were identified in both the neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis in close proximity to pituitary cells containing immunoreactive hormones such as prolactin, somatolactin, the N-terminal peptide of proopiomelanocortin, and N-acetyl endorphin.  

Adrenal insufficiency with circulatory shock was present together with deficiency of the other hormones produced by the adenohypophysis.  

Although DI and hypofunction of adenohypophysis persisted, the visual disturbance and psychiatric disorder were resolved.  

BACKGROUND: This study describes the 24-h changes in plasma prolactin levels, and dopamine (DA), serotonin (5HT), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine concentration in median eminence and adenohypophysis of newborn male rabbits. In the adenohypophysis, minimal taurine levels coincided with the major plasma prolactin peak (at 01:00 h).  

The recently described "spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis" is a very rare and often misdiagnosed entity. The histopathologic features of these lesions are consistent with spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis. In summary, we are reporting 2 cases of recurrent spindle cell oncocytoma of adenohypophysis with longer follow-up than previously published cases, suggesting the possibility of a more aggressive behavior than has been initially considered..  

We designed, based on the identification of potentially favorable local elements of mRNA secondary structure, eight phosphorothioate ASOs to knock down the expression of an ectopeptidase, pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II (PPII), in primary cultures of adenohypophysis.  

Furthermore, 3 h after LPS administration, both flutamide- and ATD-treated animals had markedly higher levels of corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and proopiomelanocortin mRNA in the adenohypophysis.  

The first phase called reactive (3-7 days) is characterized by enhancing energy-producing, protein-synthesizing and secretory functions of secretory sells of hypothalamus supraoptic nucleus, corticotrophic cells of adenohypophysis, adrenocorticytes of cortex and adrenocytes of medullary of adrenal glands.  

The authors present the case of a 35-year-old woman with secondary amenorrhea and a rapidly growing tumor located in the adenohypophysis.  

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the displacement patterns and shifts of the normal pituitary gland in sellar pathologies on MRI and to determine if the position of the bright spot (BS) represents a predicting factor for the position of the residual adenohypophysis (RAH) in pathological conditions.  

These early observations have now been corroborated by the demonstration of the receptors for various pituitary hormones in the hypothalamus and the adenohypophysis.  

The complex cellular interactions that give rise to the various structures associated with the sensory placode (olfactory) and endocrine placode (adenohypophysis) surround and engulf this enigmatic cranial nerve.  

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The difference in enhancement between the central and peripheral parts of the pituitary gland was attributable to a difference in vascularization of the neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis, respectively. Distortion or disappearance of the strong central enhancement (pituitary flush) may be used for the detection and localization of pituitary abnormalities in the adenohypophysis..  

The relative signal intensity of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis was measured as (A-V)/V and (P-V)/V, respectively (where A, P, V are the mean signal intensities of the adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis and vermis white matter, respectively). On visual inspection the adenohypophysis was rated relative to the vermis white matter (VWM) and scored as hyperintense (grade 3), isointense (grade 2) and hypointense (grade 1). The adenohypophysis was bright in 93% of babies under 2 months of chronological age. In five babies of mean gestational age 29.1 weeks a hyperintense adenohypophysis was observed at 2.9-3.7 months of chronological age (corrected age 0.37-2 months). We conclude that in pre-term babies the adenohypophysis appears in hypersignal that may persist up to 2 months of corrected age.  

The expression of the rat quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase (rQSOX) and its putative regulation by estrogens were investigated in the adenohypophysis.  

[ View All ]