Area 25 Of Prefrontal Cortex

The percentages that WGA-HRP retrogradely labelled neurons composed of the projection neurons in individual layers of infralimbic (IL; area 25) prelimbic (PL; area 32), and dorsal anterior cingulate (ACd; area 24b) cortices were calculated.  

Melancholia was associated with reduced activity in the subgenual PFC (Brodmann area 25), manifested by increased inhibitory delta activity (1.5-6.0 Hz) and decreased glucose metabolism, which themselves were inversely correlated.  

The areas studied were the prelimbic (PL, area 32) and infralimbic (IL, area 25) cortices and the dorsal anterior agranular insular (AId) and regions of posterior insular cortex (PI-comprising the agranular, dysgranular and granular fields).  

The agranular temporal pole (TGa) is connected with several areas, but most strongly with medial network area 25.  

The growth of the frontal pole in humans has pushed area 25 and area 32pl, which corresponds to the prelimbic area 32 in Brodmann's monkey brain map, caudal and ventral to the genu of the corpus callosum.  

The main effects in healthy subjects, an rCBF increase in subgenual cingulate Brodmann's area 25 and a decrease in right prefrontal cortex Brodmann's area 9, were not present in the depressed groups.  

In separate experiments, pseudorabies virus (PRV) was injected into one of the three different cytoarchitectonic regions that comprise the medial prefrontal cortex: infralimbic (Brodmann area 25), prelimbic (Brodmann area 32), and cingulate (Brodmann area 24) cortical areas.  

Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural evidence is presented indicating that direct inputs from the hippocampal CA1 field to prelimbic (area 32) and infralimbic (area 25) cortices in the rat, innervate not only 'spiny' (presumed pyramidal) neurons but also monosynaptically contact NADPH-diaphorase reactive cells and parvalbumin-containing local circuit neurons-the latter cell type is shown to be GABA immunoreactive.  

To determine the subcortical projections of this region in primates, injections of Phaseolus vulgaris leukoagglutinin, biotinylated dextran amine, or rhodamine-labeled dextran amine were placed in area 25 in three monkeys. In contrast to the efferents from area 25 previously described in the rat, there were no projections to autonomic effector regions, such as the nucleus of the solitary tract, magnocellular neurosecretory cell groups in the hypothalamus, ventrolateral medulla, or intermediolateral column of the spinal cord. These connections support the idea of a role for cortical area 25 in emotional and autonomic responses, albeit less direct than that described in rodents..  

Abuse memories were associated with alterations in blood flow in medial prefrontal cortex, with decreased blood flow in subcallosal gyrus (area 25), and a failure of activation in anterior cingulate (area 32).  

The ventral striatal inputs in the macaque monkey were studied in relation to the connections from the orbitofrontal cortex, focusing on the infralimbic area (IL or area 25), thalamic nuclei and the vagal-solitary nuclear complex (NTS-X).  

RESULTS: Exposure to traumatic material in PTSD (but not non-PTSD) subjects resulted in a decrease in blood flow in medial prefrontal cortex (area 25), an area postulated to play a role in emotion through inhibition of amygdala responsiveness.  

The afferent connections of the infralimbic area (area 25) of the medial prefrontal cortex in rats were studied using WGA-HRP as the tracer.  

Metabolism was decreased in orbitofrontal cortex (areas 11, 12o, 13, 13a, 13b), portions of the gyrus rectus including area 25, entorhinal cortex, and parts of the hippocampal formation.  

However, stimulation in area 25 elicited pressor responses and a biphasic HR response consisting of an initial HR increase followed by an HR decrease. Administration of an alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist eliminated the pressor response and bradycardiac response produced by area 25 stimulation but it had no effect on the bradycardia elicited by stimulation of area 24 or area 32. area 25 lesions had no effect on any aspect of conditioned responding..  

However, the primary thalamic projections from area 25 were to the intralaminar and midline nuclei. Amygdala projections from areas 32 and 24 were primarily to the lateral, basolateral and basomedial nuclei, but area 25 also projected to the central nucleus. area 25 and the ventral portions of area 32 also showed a bilateral projection to the parabrachial nuclei and dorsal and ventral medulla.  

We investigated the projection from the infralimbic division of the prefrontal cortex (area 25) to histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamic area.  

Those injections confined to the projection cortex of the suprageniculate-magnocellular medial geniculate nuclear complex also led to labeling in contralateral prefrontal regions, particularly in area 25 (infralimbic region).  

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