Central Sulcus

The suspected PMA and central sulcus locations were confirmed by the cortical somatosensory evoked potentials.  

We localized the central sulcus using anatomic landmarks and three-dimensional neuronavigation and by detecting the N20 wave inversion.  

Equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) generating 15 ms components were found along the posterior wall of the central sulcus, bilaterally. The ECD locations for oral mucosa-representing areas were located inferiorly to those for the index finger, with the following pattern of organization from top to bottom along the central sulcus: index finger, upper or lower lip, anterior or posterior tongue and superior or inferior buccal mucosa, with a wide distribution, covering 30% of the S1 cortex.  

Surgical treatment of pericentral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) near the central sulcus is discussed.  

The scale examined the severity of white-matter changes on 3 serial CT slices and graded separately for the 2 distinct regions anterior and posterior to the central sulcus: 0 = no lesion, 1 = partly involving the white matter, and 2 = extending up to the cortex.  

In six subjects independent tactile stimulation of the distal phalanx of the fingers of the right hand resulted in small circumscribed and barely overlapping activations precisely located along the posterior wall of the central sulcus.  

Formation of a dipole of N20 peak with opposite polarities across the central sulcus was well delineated in animation movies. The dipole on SEPs is consistent with the previously accepted notion that the cortices along the central sulcus are activated.  

PURPOSE: To develop computer-assisted image processing to identify the central sulcus from the MRI data sets in patients with brain tumors. The sulci were extracted automatically from reconstructed two-dimensional images of the cortical surface of 30 patients with brain tumors, and the extracted sulci were scored according to matching of the accepted anatomical features of the central sulcus. The correct position of the central sulcus was agreed by two senior neurosurgeons and one neuroradiologist. RESULTS: One of the three candidates corresponded to the central sulcus identified by the manual segmentation method for all 60 affected and unaffected hemispheres in the 30 patients. The candidate with the highest score coincided with the central sulcus in 26 of the 28 unaffected hemispheres and in 28 of the 32 affected hemispheres. CONCLUSION: The proposed method of computer-assisted image processing can provide accurate guidance to identifying the central sulcus in patients with brain tumors..  

The central sulcus is also a landmark of utmost importance for neurosurgeons. The aim of the study is to establish the position and course of the central sulcus artery in relation to the central sulcus and its convolutions. METHODS: Computer-assisted three-dimensional (3-D) anatomical reconstructions of the central area and of the central sulcus artery were performed with the aid of neuronavigational software in 13 patients operated at the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI). RESULTS: The central sulcus artery was coincident with the central sulcus and course(s) was almost similar on both hemispheres. CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge of the exact course of the central sulcus artery is of paramount importance in cases of lesions or epileptic foci involving the central area. 3-D reconstruction with neuronavigation has proven to be a reproducible and reliable technique to provide the surgeon with the necessary surgical topographic anatomy of the central sulcus artery and central area..  

However, their predictive value for identifying two key landmarks--the central sulcus (CS) and lateral sulcus (LS)--has never been evaluated.  

OBJECTIVE: To assess the pain-relieving effects of motor cortex electrical stimulation (MCS) within the central sulcus and the predictive factors retrospectively. In selected 12 patients, test electrodes were implanted within the central sulcus and on the precentral gyrus. In 10 of the 12 patients who received test electrodes within the central sulcus and on the precentral gyrus, the optimal stimulation was MCS within the central sulcus. CONCLUSIONS: The test stimulation within the central sulcus was more effective than that of the precentral gyrus. In the selected patients, chronic stimulation within the central sulcus did not significantly improve long-term results. SIGNIFICANCE: The present findings suggest that an intra-central sulcus is one of the favorable targets for MCS..  

OBJECT: The pli de passage moyen (PPM) is an omega-shaped cortical landmark bulging into the central sulcus.  

Following up: on day 7, routine MRI showed both symmetric T1 prolongation and T2 slightly shortening in lateral thalami, DWI showed abnormal high signal intensity in bilateral basal ganglion (mainly in the back site of lentiform nuclei, putamen) and the cortex around central sulcus, but the previous hyperintensity in lateral thalami and PLIC disappeared.  

Furthermore, the activation was structured with a line of symmetry through the central sulcus reflecting inputs both to primary somatosensory cortex and, precentrally, to primary motor cortex.  

Increased MD was observed in the superior cerebellar peduncles, deep cerebellar WM, posterior limbs of the internal capsule and retrolenticular area, bilaterally, and in the WM underlying the left central sulcus.  

OBJECTIVE: To study interhemispheric differences of somatosensory evoked field (SEF) characteristics and the spatial distribution of equivalent current dipole sources in patients with unilateral hemispheric lesions around the central sulcus region.  

The equivalent current dipoles of M30 and M50 were both estimated near the medial end of the central sulcus with approximately posterior current direction.  

The lesions were located in the middle to lower portion of the anterior wall of the central sulcus just posterior to the intersection of the superior frontal and precentral sulci. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the hand area in the cerebral motor cortex is located in the middle to lower portion of the anterior wall of the central sulcus, that is, in Brodmann area 4.  

Studies of the central sulcus (CS) often use observer-dependent procedures to assess CS morphology and sulcal landmarks.  

Additional signal increases were located in the depth of the left superior frontal sulcus, over the ventral part of the left anterior cingulate, in the depth of the right central sulcus and in the caudate nucleus/putamen.  

RESULTS: Discrete regions within the precentral gyrus (area 4) and the fundus of the central sulcus (area 3a) were selectively activated during the real acupuncture stimulation.  

A 24-year-old man presented with closed-lip schizencephaly around the right central sulcus manifesting as an 11-year history of intractable epilepsy. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated closed-lip schizencephaly around the right central sulcus. Partial corticectomy adjacent to the thickened cortex was effective for seizure control in a patient with closed-lip schizencephaly around the central sulcus..  

Such oscillatory coupling across the central sulcus may play an important role in sensorimotor integration of both proprioceptive and cutaneous signals..  

Strain fields in the brain, however, are clearly mediated by the effects of heterogeneity, divisions between regions of the brain (such as the central fissure and central sulcus) and the brain's tethering and suspension system, including the dura mater, falx cerebri, and tentorium membranes..  

Positron emission tomography obtained 7 days after admission showed areas of hypoperfusion in the medial temporal lobe and in regions anterior and posterior to the central sulcus..  

DAMP is an unusual form of cortical infarct which occurs in the parietal lobe or central sulcus region, comprising less than 1% of stroke cases.  

The dipole of MEFI was oriented posteriorly, and was located on the posterior wall of the central sulcus of the hemisphere contralateral to the movement.  

METHODS: Eight patients with chronic refractory neuropathic pain were implanted epidurally with two parallel leads of four electrodes each and placed normal to the central sulcus (CS).  

In this article, we review the mechanism of action of MCS in movement disorders, the predictive factors of MCS efficacy in PD, the indications, particularly in the elderly who are not suitable for DBS, the adverse effects, and the technique for localization of the central sulcus and for performing the procedure.  

The method of stimulation was: a) epidural, b) subdural, and c) within the central sulcus.  

PURPOSE: To confirm the cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus (CS) visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema on MRI.  

Dipole localization was compatible with an assumed origin of activation within the posterior wall of the central sulcus.  

Further N20/P30 parameters (amplitudes, latencies, localization related to central sulcus) showed no significant differences between affected and normal hemispheres.  

Activation at the fundus of the central sulcus was characteristically decreased. fMR imaging showed that activation at the fundus of the central sulcus evoked by passive wrist movement was suppressed after Vim thalamotomy in ET patients, probably due to disruption of the thalamocortical pathway. The fundus of the central sulcus (Brodmann area 3a) is likely to be one of the key relays in the tremor circuit..  

The lesion was located near the central sulcus, so surgical biopsy carried the risk of motor dysfunction.  

RESULTS: Decreased rCBF was observed in the posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus and parietal cortex in AD; in the frontal gyrus and insula in FTD; in the occipital lobe, precuneus gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex in DLB; in the striatum and the thalamus in VP; in the cerebellum in CCA; in the cerebellum and pons in MSA-C and in the frontal cortex including the central sulcus in ALS.  

In frontal cortex, areas near the central sulcus showed a clear and absolute preference for reaches, whereas the frontal eye field showed little or no effector selectivity.  

Twenty-nine MCS procedures were performed by subdural implantation of electrodes, and in the case of hand or face pain, electrodes were implanted within the central sulcus (11 cases), because the main part of M1 is located in the central sulcus in humans.  

Equivalent current dipoles for early magnetic responses were found along the posterior wall of the inferior part of the central sulcus.  

Functional MRI results obtained from a motor task and sensory stimulation in all subjects were used to identify the central sulcus, motor and sensory areas. In three patients undergoing neurosurgical evaluation, ECoGs were recorded in response to the somatosensory stimulation, and were used to help determine the central sulcus and the sensory cortex. The mean and standard deviation of the distance between the location of maximum CCD value and the central sulcus, estimated by the minimum L(p)-norm (with p equal to 1), L(1)-norm (the Linear programming) and LORETA-L(p) (with p equal to 1) methods, were 4, 7, 7 mm and 3, 4, 2 mm, respectively (after converting into Talairach coordinates).  

In the remainder of cases, the sulcus at which phase reversal occurred during SEP was shifted 1 or 2 gyri rostral to the central sulcus.  

MRI showed subcortical T2 hypointensity in the occipital white matter and in or around the central sulcus (two patients each), T2 hyperintensity of the overlying cortex (two patients), focal overlying cortical enhancement (three patients) and bilateral striatal hyperintensity (one patient).  

The subsequent response of neural elements in the precentral gyrus and in the anterior wall and lip of the central sulcus was simulated using compartmental neuron models including the axon, soma and dendritic trunk. CONCLUSIONS: Electrode polarity and electrode position over the precentral gyrus and central sulcus have a large and distinct influence on the response of cortical neural elements to stimuli.  

Sulcus formation began with the appearance of the lateral fissure on embryonic day (ED) 70, followed by delineations of four cerebral lobes by the emergence of the parietooccipital sulcus, central sulcus, and preoccipital notch on EDs 80-90.  

The central sulcus and the boundary of the white and grey matter was assessed to be adequately visible.  

During surgery, the pre- and postcentral gyrus were identified by neuronavigation, and in addition, the central sulcus was localized using intraoperative recording of somatosensory evoked potentials.  

A response function was evaluated in 10 subjects for distal and proximal muscles of the upper limb by stimulation of the motor cortex along a line approximating the central sulcus.  

RESULTS: High-resolution structural MR imaging revealed a dysplastic gyrus extending anteriorly off the left central sulcus.  

Finally, we found that the error of a population vector estimate of reaching direction constructed from neural activity within these regions is small on average, but varies significantly across different sections of the motor cortex, with the highest levels of error sustained near the fundus of the central sulcus and lowest levels achieved near the crown.  

The activity of the other brain regions such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus, cingulate sulcus and central sulcus showed no difference between target conditions.  

For the measurements around the central region distances were obtained from the following landmarks: coronal suture, central sulcus, marginal sulcus, intersection point of the vertical line through the PC with the cortex, and PC.  

PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, as compared with intraoperative cortical mapping, for identification of the central sulcus. RESULTS: MEG depicted the central sulcus correctly in all 15 patients, as verified at intraoperative mapping. In all four patients with a false localization, the primary activation was in the postcentral sulcus region, but it did not differ significantly from the primary activation in the patients with correct localization with respect to proximity to the tumor (P = .38). CONCLUSION: Although both MEG and functional MR imaging can provide useful information for neurosurgical planning, in the present study, MEG proved to be superior for locating the central sulcus.  

We hypothesize that a difference in cortical thickness between the motor and sensory strips is readily apparent on T2-weighted images in the presence of vasogenic edema and reliably identifies the central sulcus. METHODS: Thirteen patients with brain tumors resulting in vasogenic edema near the central sulcus were identified. The cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of the central sulcus as well as the neighboring sulci in the frontal and parietal lobes were measured from T2-weighted images. Location of the central sulcus was confirmed with standard anatomic landmarks in all patients and by intraoperative cortical mapping in 2 patients. RESULTS: A twofold difference in cortical thickness between the anterior and posterior banks of the central sulcus uniquely identified the central sulcus on T2-weighted images in the presence of vasogenic edema, despite the marked distortion of sulcal anatomy as a result of mass effect. CONCLUSION: Cytoarchitectonic differences in the motor and sensory cortices result in a markedly thicker posterior than anterior bank of the central sulcus that is readily visible on routine T2-weighted images in the presence of vasogenic edema.  

The parietal branch of the STA was noted to travel more or less parallel with the central sulcus in all specimens and to travel an average of 2 cm posterior to this sulcus.  

We found that the CM cells for these digit muscles are restricted to the caudal portion of M1, which is buried in the central sulcus.  

METHODS: We investigated 3 patients in whom an epileptic seizure was the only neurological symptom of a cerebral tumor located near the central sulcus. SIGNIFICANCE: Hyperexcitability of cortical neurons or insufficient cortical inhibitory mechanisms may be responsible for increased SEPs, which may serve as an epileptic marker in patients suffering from a tumor near the central sulcus..  

The central sulcus was present in all cases by 28 weeks.  

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Motor functional deficit may be caused by surgery resection of brain tumors around the central sulcus. METHODS: Routine MRI and fMRI were performed on 31 patients with brain tumor around the central sulcus. CONCLUSION: fMRI may help to identify the relationship between the brain tumors near central sulcus and the location of motor hand functional cortex, therefore, provide reference for neurosurgery..  

In these patients, the positions of the central sulcus, defined by stereotactic magnetic resonance MR imaging, intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and subdural visual verification, were correlated into the stereotactic neuronavigation planning procedure. The mean spatial accuracy of distance between (MR) imaging-defined and actual central sulcus was 2.4 mm (range 5-10 mm). The intraoperative SSEPdefined central sulcus was close to that defined by MR imaging (mean distance 6.4 mm).  

In one patient, the MCS device was placed within the central sulcus, and a 20-grid electrode was placed on the brain surface.  

BOLD signal amplitude and activated volume were correlated with the extent of edema, a mass effect on the central sulcus, tumor volume, distance of tumor to somatosensory cortex, and tumor blood volume.  

Asymmetry of central sulcus depth is significantly different between left-handed and right-handed individuals as determined by a coordinated bimanual task. Left-handed individuals have a deeper central sulcus in the contralateral hemisphere; right-handed individuals have a more symmetrical central sulcus depth.  

RESULTS: We found early, large amplitude responses in the elderly in primary somatosensory (approximately 20 ms) and pre-central sulcus timecourses (approximately 22 ms) and lower amplitude responses in the elderly later in primary somatosensory (approximately 32 ms) and contralateral secondary somatosensory timecourses (approximately 90 ms).  

Comparing a One and Two Gaussian Mixture Model of the unexplained residuals provided very strong evidence for two groups with distinct activation patterns: 6 subjects exhibited additional activations in the superior temporal sulci bilaterally, the right superior frontal and central sulcus.  

An extension and optimisation of the sliding window procedure to the specific requirements of receptorarchitectonic mapping, is also described using the macaque central sulcus and adjacent superior parietal lobule as a second, biologically independent example.  

The time course of the PMBR, as measured by EEG, was included as a regressor in the fMRI analysis, allowing identification of a region of associated BOLD signal increase in the sensorimotor cortex, with the most significant region in the post-central sulcus.  

A 31-year-old right-handed man with cortical dysplasia deep in the central sulcus suffered from disturbances in walking due to frequent daily seizures. Intraoperative examination demonstrated that small and moderate cortical dysplasia in the depths of the central sulcus exhibits both intrinsic epileptogenicity and function.  

The SI arrangement along the central sulcus was compatible with the homunculus revealed by Penfield using direct cortical stimulation during surgery.  

"The transitional cortex between the insula and the parietal operculum" was identified as PGC with the base of the central sulcus in this experiment.  

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has recently revealed that the transitions between the parietal operculum (Pop) and the insula (area G) and the ventral end of the central sulcus (cs) were activated with the shortest latency by instrumental gustatory stimulation, which suggests that the location of the primary gustatory area is in these two regions.  

Brain CT and MRI revealed a venous angioma near the right central sulcus.  

Five regions were found to show correlations with psychophysical bias: left inferior frontal gyrus, left central sulcus, left extrastriate body area, left lingual gyrus and right intraparietal sulcus.  

Comparison of retronasal versus orthonasal delivery produced preferential activity in the mouth area at the base of the central sulcus, possibly reflecting olfactory referral to the mouth, associated with retronasal olfaction.  

Here, we show estimates of these parameters for 10 volumes in the posterior cingulate, and 6 volumes in the anterior and posterior banks of the central sulcus.  

Smaller numbers of labeled cells were found in superior temporal sulcal areas FST, MT, and STP, posterior cingulate area 23b, area 3a within the central sulcus, areas SII, RI, Tpt in the lateral sulcus, and parietal areas 7a, 7b, PEc, MIP, DP, and V3A.  

Based on the results of electrocorticographic and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings, it has been considered that human rolandic oscillations originate in the anterior bank of the central sulcus (20-Hz rhythm) and the postcentral cortex (10-Hz rhythm): the 20-Hz oscillation is closely related to motor function, while the 10-Hz rhythm is attributed mainly to sensory function.  

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head revealed a rounded lesion immediately ahead of the left central sulcus.  

Little is currently known about brain morphology in WMS, although one recent MRI report suggested that the central sulcus was abnormally short on its dorsal end compared to normal IQ controls. Using high resolution isotropic voxel MRI, the dorsal and ventral extension of the central sulcus was traced and the distance from the interhemispheric and sylvian fissures was measured. The dorsal extension of the central sulcus in both hemispheres was significantly more distant from the interhemispheric fissure in WMS compared to the lower IQ group and to the normal control group (p's < 0.001). There was no significant difference between groups in the ventral end of the central sulcus. These results suggest that the abnormal dorsal end of the central sulcus may be a specific characteristic of WMS not shared with general mental retardation or low IQ..  

In the maps, response areas of Digits I to V were sequentially aligned along the central sulcus in the crown of the postcentral gyrus from the latero-inferior region (Digit I) to the medio-superior region (Digit V).  

The morphology of the central sulcus (CS), at the level of the hand primary motor cortex, has been shown to be related to hand preference and skill. Here, we further explored the relationship between the anatomical variability of the central sulcus and hand skill in two groups of young male subjects differing by handedness (n = 56 right-handers and n = 55 left-handers). Grey matter volume (GMV) in the upper region of the central sulcus was estimated with Voxel Based Morphometry, using a probabilistic region of interest approach, while hand motor skill was measured with the finger tapping test. However, multiple regression analyses showed that, in the right-handed group, the maximum tapping rate of the right hand correlated positively with the left central sulcus GMV, but negatively with the right.  

Longer P3b latencies were related to contractions in thalamus extending superiorly into the corpus callosum, white matter (WM) anterior to the central sulcus on the left and right, left temporal WM, the right anterior limb of the internal capsule extending into the lenticular nucleus, and larger cerebrospinal fluid volumes.  

Cortical activation foci evoked by unilateral tactile stimulation of ventral trunk regions were detected in the postcentral gyrus of the contralateral hemisphere slightly medial to or just behind the omega-shaped region of the central sulcus and in the anterior bank of the postcentral sulcus.  

The suspected PMA and central sulcus locations were confirmed by the cortical somatosensory evoked potentials.  

We evaluated the source distribution of benign rolandic spikes of childhood along and across the central sulcus in 15 patients, aged between 7 and 15 years, who suffered from seizure disorders.  

BACKGROUND: Lesions close to the central sulcus may give rise to focal motor seizures of long duration.  

These BSR images were reconstructed in less than 5 minutes and demonstrated the entire central sulcus with adjacent surface structures in one view. Two experienced neuroradiologists determined the localization of lesions near the central sulcus in 27 patients on standard MR images in three orthogonal planes and on BSR images.  

Patients with primary progressive MS developed significant atrophy of the bilateral central sulcus; caudate nucleus; prepontine and quadrigeminal cisterns; lateral ventricle; and regions of frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital cortex.  

Response- but not rotation-related activity was found around the left central sulcus (putative primary motor cortex) during both imagery tasks.  

Accurate localisation of the central sulcus enables maximum tumour resection with minimum morbidity in peri-Rolandic surgery. Polarity inversion of the SSEP was detected across the central sulcus using median nerve and/or lower lip stimulation in eight of the nine patients in whom the tumour did not infiltrate the lip or hand sensory area.  

The combination of sensory and motor stimulation during fMRI experiments was used to improve the exactness of central sulcus localization.  

Equivalent current dipoles of N20m and P38m were localized on the anatomical central sulcus of the normal hemispheres and over the central area of the dysplastic hemispheres.  

Precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus, precentral sulcus, central sulcus, postcentral sulcus, intraparietal sulcus and superior frontal sulcus were best shown of all structures with an arbitrary score of 2.61-2.77.  

CASE REPORT: A 51-year-old patient undergoing surgery for a right postcentral glioma was first submitted to phase reversal of somatosensory potentials for intraoperative localization of the central sulcus. During subsequent monopolar electric stimulation of the precentral gyrus, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) could not be recorded initially but only following extirpation of the tumor fraction in the central sulcus.  

Equivalent current dipoles of these ipsilateral responses were detected on the central sulcus adjacent to the location of the N20m response to left median nerve stimulus.  

The central sulcus of the left hemisphere could be clearly identified by a maximum of cortical activity after finger tapping of the right hand in all investigated patients. In eight of ten patients the right central sulcus was localised by a signal maximum, whereas in two patients the central sulcus could not be identified due to a hemiparesis in one and strong motion artefacts in the second patient. Real time fMRI is a quick and reliable method to identify the central sulcus and has the potential to become a clinical tool to assess patients non-invasively before neurosurgical treatment..  

The study shows for instance that the central sulcus is larger in the dominant hemisphere..  

fMRI and [ 15O]-H2O-PET could reliably identify the central sulcus, as demonstrated by DECS.  

In two patients with lateral precentral gyrus region gliomas and one patient with a left central sulcus AVM, the fMRI pattern incorrectly suggested primary corticobulbar motor dominance contralateral to the side of the lesion.  

Hand effects were found in the left caudal portion of PMd (PMdc) adjacent to the central sulcus, which showed prominent activation during right-handed but not left-handed discrimination tasks.  

Compared to patients without pyramidal tract lesions, patients with such lesions had more significant activations of the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC), secondary sensorimotor cortex (SII), inferior central sulcus, and cingulate motor area (CMA).  

CONCLUSIONS: The substratum of hand sensory function is a prominent fold of cortex elevating the floor of the central sulcus and connecting the pre- and postcentral gyri.  

Sources can propagate from initial activity in the finger/hand area around the central sulcus down to the mouth/tongue area..  

Primary motor and sensory areas bordering the central sulcus showed comparable responses in both groups.  

The central sulcus was identified and surface landmarks determined as the points 5 cm (P5) and 7 cm anterior to the central sulcus (P7).  

The pericentral primary sensorimotor cortices generate the "mu rhythm" with a distinct spectral signature exhibiting two peaks, generated predominantly anterior (20 Hz) or posterior (10 Hz) to the central sulcus; it defines a "background" network state upon which somatosensory inputs will impinge.  

RESULTS: MEG-EMG coherence in CBPS patients varied from normal (if normal central sulcus anatomy) to absent, and could occur at abnormally low frequency. Coherent MEG activity was generated at the central sulcus or in the polymicrogyric frontoparietal cortex.  

BACKGROUND: Intra-operative monitoring of the position of the central sulcus (CS) is indispensable to properly treat a peri-motor cortex lesion.  

The equivalent current dipole was localized on the central sulcus.  

One striking observation was that the location of area 3a varied with respect to the central sulcus. In one-half of the cases area 3a was on the rostral bank and fundus of the central sulcus and in the other half of the cases it was on the caudal bank and fundus of the central sulcus.  

In area 3b of the monkey primary somatosensory cortex SI, the proximal phalanges of the fingers are represented close to the surface and the fingertips in the depth of the central sulcus. The sources of the responses were situated in the posterior wall of the central sulcus, statistically significantly more superior to proximal than distal stimuli, with a mean difference of 3.1 mm.  

RESULTS: MR images displayed the central sulcus of the insula (97%); the anterior (99%), middle (78%), and posterior (98%) short insular gyri that converge to the apex (100%) anteriorly; and the anterior (99%) and posterior (58%) long insular gyri posteriorly. VAC intersects the anterior insula (99%), usually at the precentral sulcus.  

OBJECTIVE: Application of spatially filtered magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate changes in the mechanism of cerebral motor control in patients with tumours around the central sulcus. METHODS: MEG records were made during a repetitive hand grasping task in six patients with gliomas around the central sulcus and in four control subjects.  

RESULTS: Cocaine-related imagery was associated with relative increases in cocaine craving and increases in regional cerebral blood flow in the superior temporal gyrus, dorsal anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, nucleus accumbens area, and the central sulcus. Compared with the results of an identical PET study in matched cocaine-dependent men, conditioned cocaine craving in women was associated with less activation of the amygdala, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventral cingulate cortex and greater activation of the central sulcus and widely distributed frontal cortical areas.  

A figure-of-8 coil was used to induce either a posterior-anterior (PA) or a latero-medial (LM) flow across the central sulcus.  

TS activated two sources sequentially within SI: one in the posterior bank of the central sulcus and another in the crown of the postcentral gyrus, corresponding to Brodmann's areas 3b and 1, respectively.  

Once the dura was open and the central sulcus was identified using the phase reversal technique, mMEPs were elicited by direct stimulation of the motor cortex (DCS).  

We wanted to define the position of the primary motor tongue area (MTA) by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to display the MTA in relation to the inferolateral segment of the central sulcus (CS).  

The typical pattern consisted of propagation from central to mid-temporal locations across the central sulcus. These results suggest that rolandic spikes originate from sulcal or gyral cortices on either side of the central sulcus, and that spike propagation can ensue by intracortical spreading across the central sulcus..  

In five other patients, Resumes were placed within the central sulcus to stimulate area 4 and area 3b. Fourteen of the 19 patients showed pain reduction (6 excellent, 3 good, and 5 fair) using the MCS with our results indicating area 4 within the central sulcus to be the optimal stimulation point for pain relief. We speculate that conventional method may sometimes fail to stimulate area 4 and that focal stimulation of the primary motor cortex within the central sulcus may improve the efficacy of this treatment.  

The relevance of the framework is illustrated by the study of central sulcus sulcal roots from antenatal to adult age.  

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with loss of sensory discrimination after median nerve damage and regeneration had larger areas of activation in fMR imaging near the contralateral central sulcus during tactile stimulation of the injured compared with the noninjured hand.  

RESULTS: Two cortical areas related to voluntary motor control were identified; one in the primary hand motor area, which generated surface-negative BPs with hand movements and showed significant coherence of ECoG with EMG of the contralateral hand muscle, and the other in the ventral rolandic area posterior to the central sulcus, which generated surface-positive BPs with voluntary movements of multiple sites (hand, tongue and foot) but did not show any ECoG-EMG coherence.  

OBJECT: Surgical treatment options for intractable seizures caused by a nonlesional epileptogenic focus located in the central sulcus region are limited.  

The lesion was localized in the vicinity of the central sulcus in 3 patients, temporal and/or parietal regions in 6, and occipital region in 3. Vertigo was seen in three patients, two of them with lesions in the vicinity of the central sulcus, and one in the temporo-parietal junction.  

Some studies have suggested the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) on the upper bank of the Sylvian fissure posterior to the central sulcus, others the anterior insula or parietal area 7b.  

Intraoperative recording of cortical somatosensory-evoked potentials was performed for confirmation of the central sulcus. RESULTS: Combination of fMRI and MEG enabled firm identification of the central sulcus.  

Three-dimensional T2-weighted magnetic resonance images of 10 patients with localized infarcted areas were compared with the ROI contour of 3DSRT, and the positions of the central sulcus in the primary sensorimotor area were also estimated. The central sulcus was identified on at least one side of 210 paired ROIs and in the middle of 192 (91.4%) of these 210 paired ROIs among the 273 paired ROIs of the primary sensorimotor area. The central sulcus was recognized in the middle of more than 71.4% of the ROIs in which the central sulcus was identifiable in the respective 28 slices of the primary sensorimotor area.  

Magnetic activity was localized in the posterior bank of the central sulcus in 16 children.  

We found a 20% decrease in spatial two-point discrimination thresholds paralleled by a dipole shift in medio-lateral direction along the central sulcus.  

A quadripolar electrode strip was placed epidurally under local anesthesia through an MR-image-guided single precentral burr hole placed following the morphologic recognition of the central sulcus.  

In particular, age-related changes in task- specific activations were demonstrated in left deep anterior central sulcus when using the dominant or non-dominant hand.  

During penetrations deep into the posterior bank of the central sulcus, recordings were made every 300 microm to depths of 6-7 mm until sites unresponsive to somatic stimuli were reached.  

RESULTS: One subject with RE showed spike-related activity (17 spikes) in the left precentral gyrus, and bilaterally in the central sulcus and globus pallidus. Two subjects with RE showed an unusual gyrus branching anteriorly off the left central sulcus.  

RESULTS: The results of single time-point ED analysis including all the components of the responses indicated that the sources underlying the SEFs are located at the borders of the central sulcus (CS).  

The hemodynamic response related to the CUE and GO signals decreased in a linear fashion across the central sulcus, with activity greater along the lateral extent compared to the medial extent.  

Dipoles of iP50m and cN20m were similarly localized on the posterior bank of the central sulcus.  

The contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) revealed an activation in the knob-shaped hand representation of the central sulcus area.  

Those of alpha rhythms were concentrated around the occipito-parietal sulcus and those of mu rhythms were confined to the area around the central sulcus.  

In four subjects motor responses in a small hand muscle were mapped with 9-13 stimulation sites at the head perpendicular to the central sulcus in order to keep the induced current direction constant in a given cortical region of interest.  

The insular plane was used to limit the lateral brain, and the sylvian fissure and central sulcus to define frontal, parietal, temporal, and temporo-parieto-occipital regions.  

Somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded in the vicinity of the central sulcus in four patients with intractable epilepsy.  

We used magnetic source imaging (MSI) to identify the central sulcus and to determine whether primary cortical function was shifted in a set of 30 patients.  

Reversible, partial inactivation of the M1 hand representation produced by injection of 5-10 microg muscimol at one site impaired the monkeys' ability to perform finger movements, but no relationship was evident between the particular finger movements that were affected and the mediolateral location of the injection site along the central sulcus.  

Sensorimotor responses in malformations of cortical development extended across the central sulcus in 1 to 4 of 3 to 12 electrodes (mean 32%) compared with 1 to 6 of 4 to 15 electrodes (mean 12%) in cases without malformations with a statistical significance (P < .05). The central vein coursed partially along the central sulcus in eight cases of malformations of cortical development and five cases without malformations.  

Birth weight differences were also related to twin differences in total cerebral volume, but not central sulcus asymmetry.  

Subsequently, Penfield and Rasmussen supported the idea of a sensorimotor area in which central area function is not strictly separated by the central sulcus.  

The location of the cortical motor hand area seems to be in the middle to lower portion of the anterior wall of the central sulcus.  

Furthermore pairs of regions situated around the central sulcus indicated a dependence of the two connectivity measures on each other.  

From the MEG signal we computed distributed estimates of brain activity and identified foci just behind the central sulcus consistent in location with primary somatosensory (SI) for arm and foot and secondary somatosensory (SII) areas. These activations were weak, only loosely time-locked to the stimulus and were seen intermittently behind the central sulcus and nearby cortical areas.  

In the present study, we evaluated the usefulness of magnetoencephalography (MEG) for presurgical identification of not only the central sulcus by somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEFs), which is a well-known, reliable technique, but also the primary hand motor area by movement-related cerebral magnetic fields (MRCFs). Identification of the central sulcus by SEF responses to multiple sites of stimulation (median nerve, tibial nerve, thumb, and lower lip) was performed in all patients, and identification of the hand motor area by MRCF responses to the index finger extension task was made in 9. The central sulcus was clerAly identified by SEFs in all patients, even in 5 whose MR images showed severe distortion, and the primary hand motor area was identified by MRCFs in 6 of 9 patients. The central sulcus and primary motor area identified by MEG were confirmed by cortical recording of somatosensory evoked potentials in response to median nerve stimulation in 7 patients and motor evoked potentials in response to direct cortical stimulation in 5.  

The modulation concentrated to two sites along the central sulcus, identified as the motor face and hand representations.  

Robust fMRI activations centered on the lateral inferior aspect of the central sulcus and extended into pre- and post-central gyri, adjacent to ESM tongue loci.  

In contrast, injections made by other investigators into cortical areas anterior to the central sulcus revealed cerebrocortical afferents to NRTP, in addition to nuclei of the basal pontine gray.  

Interhemispheric and gender differences of the central sulcus were examined via a parametric ribbon approach. The central sulcus was found to be deeper and larger in the right nondominant hemisphere than in the left dominant hemisphere, both in males and in females. Based on its pattern, that asymmetry could be attributed to increased connectivity between motor and somatosensory cortex, facilitating fine movement, which could constrain the in-depth growth of the central sulcus.  

Passive proprio-somesthesic stimulation of the toes generated activation posterior to the central sulcus in the three patients who also showed a somesthesic evoked potential response to somesthesic stimulation.  

Electrode placement for chronic motor cortex stimulation is a good indication to use fMRI data registered in a neuronavigational system and could replace somatosensory evoked potentials in detection of the central sulcus..  

Event-related desynchronization (ERD) was demonstrated in the 8-13, 13-25 and 25-50-Hz ranges bilaterally in the area surrounding the central sulcus.  

near the central sulcus and near the postcentral sulcus.  

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients with mass lesions near the central sulcus were studied preoperatively using a figure-of-eight transcranial magnetic stimulator attached to a neuronavigation system to allow for direct visualization of the stimulated brain region.  

A separate volumes-of-interest analysis revealed significant reductions in mean percent signal change in the dual task compared to the single task in a portion of the pre-central gyrus, deep in the central sulcus (thought to correspond to area 4p) and SMA.  

Six right-handed patients with brain tumours of central sulcus area, aged 20-50 years were examined using a commercial 1.5 T scanner.  

RESULTS: In particular, an antero-lateral inducing current orientation in the stimulating coil, approximately paralleling the central sulcus, proved clearly more effective for the masseter muscles than the postero-lateral orientation (P=0.005) found optimal for intrinsic hand muscles.  

There was a polarity inversion of the prophase component and also the N20-P20 component of HFOs across the central sulcus.  

Despite considerable interindividual variability, representations of areas 3a, 3b, and 1 in > or = 50% of the brains were found in the fundus of the central sulcus, in the rostral bank, and on the crown of the postcentral gyrus, respectively.  

A shortened extent of the dorsal central sulcus has been observed in autopsy specimens. OBJECTIVE: To compare gross anatomical features between the dorsal and ventral portions of the cerebral hemispheres by examining the dorsal extent of the central sulcus in brain magnetic resonance images from a sample of subjects with WMS and age- and sex-matched control subjects. The extent of the central sulcus was qualitatively assessed via surface projections of the cerebral cortex. RESULTS: The dorsal central sulcus is less likely to reach the interhemispheric fissure in subjects with WMS than in controls for both left (P< .001, chi(2) = 15.79) and right (P< .001, chi(2) = 12.95) hemispheres. No differences between the groups were found in the ventral extent of the central sulcus.  

The posterior insula, central sulcus, and inferior parietal lobule including the intraparietal sulcus have been considered the vestibular cortex based on functional brain mapping in humans as well as experiments in lower primates.  

A second network of areas including central sulcus, insular, and inferior frontal cortical areas, along with the thalamus and basal ganglia, showed phasic activation tied to the execution of responses.  

Equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) for the MRFs were localized on the central sulcus, 14.4 +/- 6.1 mm inferior (P < 0.0001) and 7.6 +/- 6.9 mm anterior (P < 0.01) to the ECD for the N20m in the somatosensory evoked fields for median nerve stimuli. The ECD orientations of MRFs were anterior and perpendicular to the central sulcus.  

RESULTS: Virtual movements of the missing limbs produced contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex and central sulcus activations in the patients with upper-limb amputation.  

Moreover, a significant increase in the length of the left inferior frontal sulcus and a posterior shifting of the left pre-central sulcus was associated with age.  

Using a monophasic response model, fMRI primarily localized within the central sulcus and did not demonstrate large signal changes over the pre- and post-central gyri (areas with iOIS/EP activity).  

Source analysis showed that the equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) for both 1M and 2M were located around the central sulcus, possibly in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI).  

In the normal volunteers activations during shoulder anteflexion, finger tapping and eye closure were located within the central sulcus in a medio-lateral fashion.  

A draining vein within the central sulcus was present in all patients that showed activation within the parenchyma of the precentral gyrus but also in three patients in whom no parenchymal activation was present.  

Intraindividual analyses further showed that strongest activations were consistently located along the contralateral central sulcus in control subjects but occurred in locations differing from individual to individual in the autism group.  

This effect was seen in two different subdivisions of SI, one in the depth of the central sulcus, presumably corresponding to Brodmann area (BA) 3b, and one on the crown of the postcentral gyrus, presumably corresponding to BA 1/2.  

In the T1-weighted MRI, we found structural deformities of the contralateral and ipsilateral central sulcus in three patients and a contralateral atrophic parietal lobule in two patients.  

For both data sets, the Sylvian fissure, the central sulcus, and the superior and inferior temporal sulci were depicted on the patient's scalp using the frameless neuronavigation system EasyGuide Neurotrade mark.  

The obtained activation maps were projected to the region of anterior and posterior central gyri and to the central sulcus. The intraoperative determination of the central sulcus by the evoked potential method in 4 patients confirmed the results obtained after FMRI.  

Passive somesthesic stimulation generated activation posterior to the central sulcus for 2 patients.  

(1) A long collateral of the main axon from a large pyramidal cell in layer Vb of the putative forelimb area on the anterior bank of the central sulcus coursed horizontally anteriorly for 3 mm and formed a terminal arbor in layer III of M1. (2) The main axon of a pyramidal cell in layer IIIa+b of the putative forelimb area on the precentral gyrus descended into the white matter and then entered the anterior bank of the central sulcus to form a terminal arbor in layers III and V. One branch entered the anterior bank of the central sulcus to form a terminal field in layer VI.  

The change in regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) was measured during hand movements in Case 2 who had a huge AVM over the central sulcus.  

BACKGROUND:The purpose of this prospective study was to localize the central sulcus by frameless neuronavigation and to project this anatomical structure to the outside of the skull on the skin. METHOD: In 27 patients investigated (28 unaffected hemispheres), the central sulcus was virtually projected to the outside of the skull using frameless neuronavigation and a virtual pointer elongation of 15 or 20 mm. the distance between the bregma and the midline junction of the central sulcus, and 2. the angle between the central sulcus and the midline. FINDINGS: Virtual pointer projection of the central sulcus to the outside of the skull using frameless neuronavigation was found to be easily possible. The distance between the bregma and the midline junction of the central sulcus amounted to a mean of 55 mm on the left and 56 mm on the right. The angle between the central sulcus and the midline reached a mean of 63 degrees on the left and 60 degrees on the right. INTERPRETATION: It is easily possible, valid, and reliable to virtually project the central sulcus to the outside of the skull with an acceptably low inaccuracy using frameless neuronavigation.  

Magnetic source imaging (MSI) revealed dipolar sources within 1 cm of the central sulcus for all four components.  

The equivalent current dipole of N15m was localized at the posterior bank of the central sulcus with anterior-superior orientation, and inferior to the dipole of N20m for median nerve stimulation..  

The central sulcus was identified also by available anatomical landmarks.  

We used focal figure-of-eight coils of 3 common stimulators (Dantec Magpro, Magstim 200 and Magstim Rapid) and systematically varied current direction (postero-anterior versus antero-posterior, perpendicular to the central sulcus) as well as pulse waveform (monophasic versus biphasic).  

At 24-26 weeks, only a few shallow grooves were seen in the central sulcus, and three layers, including the immature cortex, intermediate zone, and germinal matrix, were differentiated in all fetuses.  

Brain MRI revealed extensive cortical dysplasia with pachygyria and microgyria around the right central sulcus.  

In the macaque monkey, the primary motor cortex (Brodmann's area 4 or area F1) with its giant pyramidal or Betz cells lies immediately anterior to the central sulcus.  

In comparing groups of infants with and without damage in tracts connected with the cortex surrounding the central sulcus, such support would consist of the finding that similar patterns of spontaneous kicking are observed early in development, whereas differences between groups should occur with increasing age.  

The position of the central sulcus was confirmed by the use of intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials.  

Greater metabolic variances in the central sulcus region and occipital lobe suggest potential difficulties in controlling sensory input and motor output or planning in conscious monkey experiments.  

We investigated the phase change of each oscillation potential around the central sulcus. One-third of the oscillations showed phase reversal around the central sulcus, while later oscillations elicited in a restricted cortical area did not. Most of the lip oscillations showed phase reversal around the central sulcus, but most of the posterior tibial nerve oscillations did not.  

A Multi-Start Spatio-Temporal (MSST) multidipole localization algorithm was used to study sources on the anterior and posterior banks of the central sulcus localized from early somatosensory magnetoencephalography (MEG) responses. Two sources, one on the anterior and one on the posterior bank of the central sulcus, were localized from 16 data sets (8 subjects, 2 hemispheres). The temporal dynamics of the anterior and posterior central sulcus sources, obtained using MSST, showed considerable temporal overlap. The same group of subjects also performed a motor task involving index-finger lifting; the anterior central sulcus source obtained from electrical median nerve stimulation localized to the same or similar region in the primary motor area identified from the finger-lift task. The physiological significance of the anterior central sulcus source is discussed.  

Repetition of the CV and CCCV monosyllables elicited a rather bilateral symmetric hemodynamic response at the level of the anterior and posterior bank of the central sulcus (primary sensorimotor cortex), whereas a more limited area of neural activity arose within this domain during production of lexical and nonlexical polysyllables, significantly or exclusively lateralized toward the left hemisphere.  

The position of the central sulcus was confirmed by the use of intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials.  

However, the absence of P20/N20 may indicate a hypoplastic central sulcus or functionally undifferentiated subdivision of the somatosensory cortex in these patients.  

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