Fimbria Of Hippocampus

fimbria-fornix (FF), the septo-hippocampal pathway, was transected to model Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by loss of cholinergic afferent fibers in hippocampus.  

We compared white structures of pig brain (fimbria, corpus callosum, pyramidal tracts, and occipital white matter) to gray structures (temporal, parietal and cerebellar cortices, hippocampus, and caudate) and found that sodium-dependent, high-affinity choline uptake in white structures was 25-31% of that in hippocampus. White matter choline acetyltransferase activity was 10-50% of the hippocampal value; the highest activity was found in fimbria.  

CA3 efferents in the fimbria were transected, taking care to spare cholinergic and GABAergic afferents. fimbria transections, but not dorsal fornix transections, resulted in deficits for the encoding of spatial information during learning of a Hebb-Williams maze. Dorsal fornix, but not fimbria, transections resulted in deficits for retrieval of spatial memory during learning of a Hebb-Williams maze.  

The hippocampal tail and fimbria-fornix are disrupted posteriorly.  

A complete transection of the hippocampal formation (including dentate gyrus and hippocampus proper, sparing the fimbria) results in a blockade of ictal activities spread from the generator, a reduction in their frequency and an increase in their duration.  

The medial septum diagonal band area (MS/DB) projects to the hippocampus through the fornix/fimbria pathway and is implicated in generating hippocampal theta oscillations. Here, we investigated the physiological role of hippocamposeptal feedback to the MS/DB in a complete in vitro septohippocampal preparation containing the intact interconnecting fornix/fimbria pathway. We next determined the mechanism underlying the rebound spiking that followed the IPSPs in MS/DB GABAergic neurons using phasic electrical stimulation of the fornix/fimbria pathway.  

In Mecp2J mice, while there was significant reduction in rostrocaudal length of cortex, this parameter was also abnormal in hippocampus ( approximately 10%), periaqueductal gray matter ( approximately 13%), fimbria ( approximately 18%), and anterior commissure ( approximately 10%).  

This study explored the putative role of the principal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurones that project to the hippocampus from the median raphe nucleus in this response to an aversive environment by lesioning the 5-HT fibres that project through the fornix/fimbria and cingulum bundles.  

The myelination of subcortical white matter and the fimbria of hippocampus was measured by 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphohydrolase (CNPase, marker of oligodendrocyte) density at 25 days of age. By contrast, ID rats had significantly lower density of CNPase in the subcortical white matter but the density of CNPase in fimbria of hippocampus was comparable to CN rats.  

(3) As for the method of SAHE, after having entered through the temporal stem into the temporal horn, the hippocampus is dissected between the medial margin of the collateral eminence and the tela chorioidea -fimbria hippocampi.  

The present study showed 90% of Id2-immunoreactivity in oligodendrocyte lineage cells in such brain regions as the corpus callosum, optic chiasm, the longitudinal fasciculus of pons, the medial septal nucleus, the fimbria of hippocampus, the anterior commissure, and the pyramidal tract.  

The output from CA3a,b via the fimbria and the medial and lateral perforant path inputs play a supporting role in the neural circuit that supports the operation of these tasks.  

RESULTS: Conditioned fear stress decreased synaptic efficacy and blocked the induction of synaptic potentiation in the fimbria-CA3 pathway.  

O4 sulfatide immunoreactivity was reduced in the external capsule, hippocampal fimbria, and corpus striatum at 4 days relative to that contralaterally, suggesting the loss of preoligodendrocytes.  

To examine the potential for ESNPs to incorporate into the adult hippocampus and differentiate into hippocampal neurons or glia following seizure-induced damage, we compared the fates of ESNPs after they were transplanted into the CA3 region or fimbria 1 week following KA-induced seizures. In contrast, most ESNPs transplanted into the fimbria migrated extensively along existing fiber tracts and differentiated into oligodendrocytes or astrocytes. Hippocampal grafts in mice not subjected to seizures displayed a marked tendency to form tumors, and this effect was more pronounced in the DG than in the fimbria.  

We have previously found that EPO given to fimbria-fornix transected rats at the moment of injury is able substantially to improve the posttraumatic acquisition of allocentric place learning tasks administered in a water maze as well as in an 8-arm radial maze. Consequently, we presently studied the effects of similarly administered EPO in fimbria-fornix transected and control operated rats, respectively--evaluating the posttraumatic behavioural/cognitive abilities in a spatial delayed alternation task performed in a T-maze. Administration of EPO to the hippocampally injured rats was associated with a substantial reduction of the lesion-associated behavioural impairment--while such an impairment was clearly seen in the saline injected fimbria-fornix transected group.  

We therefore investigated the effects of 4OH-GTS-21, a selective partial agonist for these receptors, on septohippocampal cholinergic and GABAergic neuron survival following fimbria fornix (FFX) lesions in three strains of mice: C57BL/6J wild type mice; human presenilin-1 mutant M146L (PS1) transgenic mice; and mice expressing both mutant PS1 and Swedish mutant K670N/M671L amyloid precursor protein (APP).  

The current study investigated the effects of galantamine (0.0 or 3.0mg/kg) in rabbits sustaining knife-cut lesions to the fimbria-fornix, a major projection pathway connecting the hippocampus to cortical and subcortical brain structures involved in the formation of long-term memories.  

The acquisition of a spatial delayed alternation task in a T-maze was studied in four groups of rats: animals in which the fimbria-fornix had been transected bilaterally, rats who had received bilateral ablations of the anteromedial prefrontal cortex, animals in which both of these structures had been lesioned, and a sham operated control group. Both of the fimbria-fornix transected groups were significantly impaired even when compared to the group given prefrontal cortical ablations in isolation. The two fimbria-fornix lesioned groups did, however, exhibit levels of functional recovery. The group in which both structures had been lesioned demonstrated a task acquisition, which was significantly inferior to that of the group given fimbria-fornix transections in isolation. This expansion of the inter-trial delay rather selectively impaired the task performance of the group given fimbria-fornix transections in isolation. Consequently, both during the acquisition period and in one of the challenges a differentiation of functional recovery was seen between the combined lesioned group and the group given fimbria-fornix lesions only. This indicates that even in case of a spatial delayed alternation task the prefrontal cortex normally contributes significantly to mediation of posttraumatic functional recovery after isolated lesions of the fimbria-fornix.  

The resulting images were used to determine the mean diffusivity, FA, and principal fiber orientation for manually segmented hippocampal regions that included the stratum oriens, stratum radiatum, stratum pyramidale (CA1 and CA3), stratum lacunosum-molecular, hilus, molecular layer, granule cell layer, fimbria, and subiculum. Water diffusivity ranged from 1.21 +/- 0.22 x 10(-4) mm(2)/s in the fimbria to 3.48 +/- 0.72 x 10(-4) mm(2)/s in granule cells (analysis of variance, P<.001).  

In this study, dorsal CA3 efferent fibers in the fimbria were transected; while taking care to spare afferent fibers from the medial septum.  

The relationship of the entorhinal cortex (EC) and fimbria-fornix (FF) in unreinforced spatial (latent) learning was studied using the conditioned-cue-preference task on an eight-arm radial maze. These results indicate that the acquisition of information during unreinforced exploration of a novel environment requires an intact circuit involving the dorsal EC and fimbria fornix.  

In Experiment 2, a selective transection of dorsal CA3 efferents in the fimbria resulted in deficits for spatial and nonspatial (visual object) novelty detection.  

We found that glycine uptake in white structures of pig forebrain (corpus callosum, fimbria, subcortical pyramidal tracts, and occipital subcortical white matter) was similar to that in gray structures (frontal and temporal cortices and hippocampus), and that it was sensitive to sarcosine, a GLYT1 inhibitor (IC(50) 15 microM).  

At 72 h post-injury, increased immunoreactivity for MAG was seen in the ipsilateral cortex, thalamus and hippocampus of brain-injured animals, and anti-MAG mAb was detectable in the hippocampus, fimbria and ventricles.  

In axonal tracts, ferroportin immunoreactivity was high in fibers of the internal capsule, fimbria, mamillothalamic tract and the habenulo-interpedunculo pathway.  

Degeneration of axotomized GABAergic septohippocampal neurones has been shown to be enhanced in ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-deficient mice following fimbria-fornix transection (FFT), indicating a neuroprotective function of endogenous CNTF.  

RESULTS: The hippocampus, fimbria, amygdala and choroidal fissure constituting the mesial temporal lobe were intraventricular structures, and uncus, parahippocampal gyrus, and dentate gyrus were extraventricular structures.  

These results were not reproduced after lateral axotomy of the fimbria fornix, indicating a specific role for Sema6C variants in the generation and/or stability of entorhino-hippocampal synapses.  

This study examined whether the cooperation of the hippocampus, and anterior thalamus via the fimbria-fornix is involved in the spatial memory. We compared the effect of contralateral lesions (Contra) with ipsilateral lesions (Ipsi) of the fimbria-fornix and anterior thalamus on the performance of an object exploration task and the Morris water maze task.  

Animal model of AD was established with fimbria-fornix transection.  

The rodent dentate gyrus (DG) is formed in the embryo when progenitor cells migrate from the dentate neuroepithelium to establish a germinal zone in the hilus and a secondary germinal matrix, near the fimbria, called the hippocampal subventricular zone (HSVZ). Another subset included EGFP(+)/RIP(+) oligodendrocytes that migrated into the fimbria, corpus callosum, and cerebral cortex.  

As the habenular nuclei have been shown to influence the release of many neurotransmitters, both in the hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens, we examined in this study the effects of bilateral habenula lesions on the plasticity of the fimbria-nucleus accumbens pathway, by means of the long-term depression phenomenon in freely moving rats. Long-term depression, induced within the shell region of the nucleus accumbens by low-frequency stimulation of the fimbria, was exaggerated and showed greater persistence in habenula-lesioned rats compared with sham-operated animals. These results indicate that plasticity in the fimbria-nucleus accumbens pathway is altered by habenula lesions in a way similar to previously-reported effects of stress and the psychosis-provoking agent ketamine.  

These divergent views were examined in experiments using electrolytic Lesions of fimbria-fornix (FF) or radiofrequency or neurotoxic Lesions of MT of rats subsequently trained to find a stable visible (experiment 1) or hidden platform (experiments 2 and 3) in a water maze (WM) pool.  

Migration of NPs was observed after injecting an inflammatory stimulus into the area of the fimbria and transplanting enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labeled NPs into the dentate gyrus of cultured hippocampal slices.  

We tested the hypothesis that fimbria-fornix deafferentation can provide long-term protection to cornus ammonis 1 neurons and modulate neurogenesis following ischemia. fimbria-fornix lesion or sham-fimbria-fornix lesion was performed on Wistar rats 13 days prior to 10 min forebrain ischemia or sham ischemia. fimbria-fornix lesioning followed by ischemia increased the percentage of new neurons 13-fold over ischemia alone and 6.5-fold over sham lesion plus ischemia. The results indicate that fimbria-fornix deafferentation provides long-term neuroprotection in cornus ammonis 1 following forebrain ischemia and promotes neurogenesis after ischemic insults..  

Long-term protection against severe forebrain ischemia can be conferred by fimbria-fornix (FF) deafferentation, which interrupts the afferent input to CA1.  

We previously found that EPO given to fimbria-fornix transected rats at the moment of injury could substantially improve the posttraumatic acquisition of an allocentric place learning task when such a task is administered in a water maze. Consequently, here we studied the effects of similarly administered EPO in fimbria-fornix transected and control operated rats, respectively, evaluating the posttraumatic behavioral/cognitive abilities in an allocentric place learning task administered in an 8-arm radial maze. The administration of EPO to the hippocampally injured rats was associated with a virtually complete elimination of the otherwise severe behavioral impairment caused by fimbria-fornix transection.  

Lesions of the fimbria-fornix impaired the water and salt CCPs but not the salt LCP, while lesions of the entorhinal cortex impaired the salt LCP but not the CCPs. In contrast, the CCPs depend on the amygdala and a circuit that includes the hippocampus and fimbria-fornix, possibly as a conduit of motivational information from subcortical structures..  

We have previously shown that the lesion of the fimbria-fornix--the main entrance of subcortical afferents to the hippocampus--abolishes the reinforcing basolateral amygdala-effects on long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus in vivo. Young-adult (8 weeks) Sprague-Dawley male rats were fimbria-fornix-transected under anesthesia, and electrodes were implanted at the dentate gyrus and the perforant path. fimbria-fornix-lesion reduced the ability of the animals to develop long-term potentiation when a short pulse duration was used for tetanization (0.1 ms per half-wave of a biphasic stimulus), whereas increasing the pulse duration to 0.2 ms per half-wave during tetanization resulted in a transient early-long-term potentiation lasting about 4 h in the lesioned animals, comparable to that obtained in non-lesioned or sham-operated control rats. However, in fimbria-fornix-lesioned animals long-term potentiation-reinforcement by drinking was not detected.  

In the fimbria hippocampus, the anterior commissure posterior showed staining at Clonus 5.  

These structures included the neocortex, hippocampus, amygdala, olfactory bulbs, basal forebrain and septum, caudate-putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, hypothalamus, central gray, superior colliculi, inferior colliculi, the rest of midbrain, cerebellum, brainstem, corpus callosum/external capsule, internal capsule, anterior commissure, fimbria, and ventricles.  

Micro-injection of the 5-HT neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine into the fimbria-fornix (3.0 microg/side) and the cingulate bundle (1.8 microg/side) depleted hippocampal 5-HT locally but did not change cell proliferation 3 weeks after the surgery.  

However, neuroprogenitor proliferation in the DG is reduced after fimbria-fornix lesions but not after entorhinal deafferentation, which supports the view that neuroprogenitor proliferation and/or differentiation in the DG are controlled from basal forebrain/septal neurons..  

Gene expression is studied by RT-PCR in ovariectomized female rats with and without estrogen supplementation within the physiological estradiol range and in rats with complete fimbria-fornix transactions treated with estrogen or vehicle. To clarify mechanisms of estrogen transduction in cholinergic neurons, we study the effects of estrogen treatment on fimbria-fornix-lesioned mice with genetic ablations of ER subtypes alpha and beta.  

(1) To investigate the effects of long-term cholinergic deafferentation, we lesioned the fimbria-fornix pathway in our AD-model mice at 7 months of age, and 11 months post-lesion the mice were sacrificed for histopathological analysis. The fimbria-fornix transection resulted in a substantial depletion of cholinergic markers in the hippocampus, but the lesion did not result in an alteration in hippocampal A deposition and inflammation (i.e., numbers or staining density of astrocytes and microglia).  

Although bilateral fimbria-fornix (FF) lesioning impairs spatial performance in animals, the literature is equivocal regarding its effects on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP).  

At these times, the total G1 proteolytic fragment of brevican was lower in the ipsilateral hippocampus and the level of a protease-generated brevican fragment was significantly diminished in the OL-rich hippocampal fimbria.  

In the present study, we administered leupeptin into the rat ventricle and found that alpha-synuclein-positive structures appeared widely in the neuronal tissue, mainly in neuronal processes of the fimbria and alveus. Immunoelectron microscopic study revealed that alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity was located in the swollen axons of the fimbria and alveus, especially in the dilated presynaptic terminals.  

We found that mast cell infiltration, as a result of the trauma, occurred primarily in the injured cortex and did not proceed beyond the fimbria of the hippocampus.  

In the current study, the memory effects of clozapine and nicotine administration were determined in rats with lesions of the fimbria-fornix, a fiber bundle which carries cholinergic and other projections between the septum and the hippocampus. Then, 13 rats received bilateral knife-cut lesions of the fimbria-fornix, while 14 rats underwent sham surgery. fimbria-fornix lesions also caused a significant (P<0.05) memory impairment. In contrast to its effects in controls, clozapine (1.25 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) attenuated the working memory deficit caused by fimbria-fornix lesions. This study demonstrates the efficacy of clozapine in improving working memory in fimbria-fornix-lesioned rats, whereas it causes impairments in intact rats.  

Dentate granule cells were labeled later than (E)16 and originated from a restricted area of neuroepithelium adjacent to the fimbria.  

The acquisition of a water maze based task requiring egocentric spatial orientation in the absence of distal cues was studied in four groups of rats: animals in which the fimbria-fornix had been transected, rats that received bilateral ablations of the anteromedial prefrontal cortex, animals in which both of these structures had been lesioned, and a sham-operated control group. Behavioural challenges in the form of a no-platform session and two reversals of platform position demonstrated that while the sham-operated control group and the group subjected to fimbria-fornix transections in isolation utilized rather pure egocentric orientation strategies, the two prefrontally lesioned groups (and especially the combined lesion group) employed a different set of solution strategies which at least partly relied on a "circling" method.  

In this study, we have demonstrated that acute systemic administration of ketamine, at a dose known to produce hyperlocomotion and stereotypy, depressed the amplitude of the monosynaptic component of fimbria-evoked field potentials recorded in the nucleus accumbens.  

In the fimbria and the spinal cord, similar patterns of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing astrocytes were found in wild-type and mutant mice.  

Stimulation of either perforant path or fimbria fornix induced a prolonged afterdischarge pattern peaking at 200 Hz fast, 20 Hz beta, and 2 Hz Delta frequencies.  

This study examined the distribution of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2)-immunoreactive neuronal structures in the ipsilateral and contralateral hippocampi of unilateral fimbria/fornix transected, unilateral entorhinal cortex ablated, and intact female and male rats. The fimbria/fornix transection caused a significant reduction in the density of VGLUT2-positive boutons only in the CA2 field, while entorhinal cortex ablation elicited no change in fiber density in any of the areas analyzed.  

Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the Msx1-expressing cells of the hippocampus and fimbria are astrocytes, oligodendrocytes or immature oligodendrocytes. Moreover, using an anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody (GFAP), our study reveals two populations of astrocytes in the adult hippocampus and other areas, such as the fimbria, namely Msx1+/GFAP+ and Msx1-/GFAP+. We also observed co-localization of polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule, a marker of the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule, in Msx1-expressing cells in the fimbria. These cells may be precursors of glial cells and originate from the epithelium of the fimbria. The present study indicates, in the mature mouse brain, that Msx1 may be linked to secretory activity in circumventricular organs, and to glial proliferation and differentiation in the hippocampus and fimbria, and presumably also in other cerebral areas.  

fimbria-fornix lesions made before, but not after, PE, and hippocampus lesions made at either time, blocked the discrimination, suggesting that the 2 structures processed different information. A hippocampus/fimbria-fornix system and an amygdala system process different information about the same learning situation simultaneously and in parallel..  

The results of the correlated light and electron microscopic double-labeling immunohistochemistry for VGLUT2 and PV, and single immunostaining for VGLUT2 in colchicine-treated animals, showed that (1) VGLUT2-containing boutons establish asymmetric synaptic contacts with PV-positive perikarya and dendrites; (2) a large population of VGLUT2-immunoreactive neurons is located primarily in the posterior division of the septum; and (3) following surgical fimbria/fornix transection and septal undercut, most VGLUT2-containing axons, including those terminating on MSDB PV cells, remains intact.  

RESULTS: Of 31 consecutive patients studied, 26 developed a small, punctate DWI lesion in the lateral aspect of the hippocampal formation (pes and fimbria hippocampi) on either side (left, n = 15; right, n = 6) or bilaterally (n = 5).  

The ability of fimbria-fornix bilateral axotomy to elicit calpain and caspase-3 activation in the rat septohippocampal pathway was determined using antibodies that selectively recognize either calpain- or caspase-cleaved products of the cytoskeletal protein alphaII-spectrin. Calpain-cleaved alphaII-spectrin immunoreactivity was observed in cholinergic fibers coursing through the fimbria-fornix, but not in pyramidal neurons of the dorsal hippocampus, suggesting that degenerating cholinergic nerve terminals were the source of calpain activity in the dorsal hippocampus following axotomy.  

The subsequent axonal transport of Mn(2+) highlighted the principal extrinsic projections from the posterior hippocampal formation via the fimbria and the precommissural fornix to the dorsal part of the lateral septal nucleus.  

Rats receiving intrahippocampal injections of 192 IgG-saporin (SAP-HPC), fimbria-fornix lesions (FF), or sham control surgeries were tested in a series of delayed matching (DMTP)- and nonmatching (DNMTP)-to-position tasks. Results demonstrate the importance of the fimbria-fornix fiber system in spatial short-term memory but suggest that the cholinergic septohippocampal component of this pathway is not required for successful delayed matching (or nonmatching)-to-position performance..  

Here, we show that Netrin-1, expressed along the fimbria, chemoattracts both septohippocampal and hippocamposeptal fibers.  

Our results confirmed that the levels of L1 transcripts were significantly increased after prenatal delta9-THC exposure in several regions such as the fimbria, stria terminalis, stria medullaris and corpus callosum, which share the properties of being white matter regions and containing, exclusively during development, an abundant population of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, the major targets for the action of plant-derived cannabinoids.  

Infusions of tetrodotoxin (TTX) were used to induce reversible lesions in the fimbria fornix, medial septum, dorsal hippocampus, and ventral hippocampus. Tetrodotoxin lesions of the fimbria fornix increased both open arm exploration and the number of shocks taken by the rats, while having no effect on burying behavior.  

We identified the transitional oligodendrocyte and their processes of rat hippocampal fimbria associated with the initial stage of myelination in both the morphological and functional classifications by means of three-dimensional ultrastructural analysis.  

Examples include the Purkinje cell layer and the granular cell layer in the mouse cerebellum as well as the delineation of the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus relative to surrounding hippocampal gray matter and white matter tracts such as the hippocampal fimbria.  

On E15, CS expression formed a U-shaped border below the fimbria. Similar cells were present dorsal to the fimbria, extending their processes perpendicularly over the growing axons. The data reveal that CS and radial glial cells form a tunnel surrounding the developing fimbria and a border at the midline caudal to the hippocampal commissure.  

Within the fimbria, NCAM PSA was expressed only in a subpopulation of fibres, most likely cholinergic projections from the medial septum to the hippocampus.  

Regional differences in perivascular glial structures were investigated between the white matter (hippocampal fimbria, corpus callosum, cerebellar medulla) and the gray matter (cerebral cortex) of adult rats.  

Transection of the fimbria/fornix (FF) had no significant effect on the synaptic density in non-GDX males.  

In both control rats (no shock) and shocked rats previously submitted to an extensive pre-exposure to the to-be-conditioned contextual cues (latent inhibition), high- and low-frequency stimulation of fimbria-accumbens pathway induced, in the nucleus accumbens, similar pattern of increases and decreases in synaptic efficacy, respectively. In addition, contextual conditioning did not alter the baseline transmission whatever the stimulus intensity and was ineffective on the induction of fimbria-accumbens synaptic plasticity following complete extinction of freezing response to the conditioned contextual cues.  

INTRODUCTION: Numerous reports show that lesions to hippocampus afferents, such as the entorhinal cortex (EC) and the fimbria fornix (FF), exert an effect on memory in rodents.  

To determine the long-term effects of this NGF-expression on neuron function, fimbria-fornix (FF) lesions were conducted 6 months after NGF gene transfer.  

Using fimbria-fornix transection as a model, we examined whether responses of GABAergic and cholinergic septohippocampal neurons to axotomy are altered in mice lacking CNTF.  

Baseline GFAP-IR was 10-fold higher in old than in young mice in the fimbria/IC but not appreciably changed in hippocampus. In young mice, the injections of Abeta caused 20-fold increases in GFAP-IR in the fimbria/IC and 2-fold increases in the hippocampal neuropil at 1 week, all of which values returned to baseline by 8 weeks. In old mice, Abeta injections caused relatively much larger increases in GFAP-IR in the hippocampal neuropil than in the fimbria/IC and the GFAP-IR remained greatly increased at 8 weeks.  

The fimbria-fornix was lesioned by a unilateral-knife cut and the brain was processed for 125I-Ang IV binding, acetylcholinesterase, and cresyl violet staining. Unilateral lesions of the fimbria-fornix significantly reduced acetylcholinesterase staining in the ipsilateral hippocampus.  

Further, to investigate the effects of long-term deafferentation, in a second experiment we cut the fimbria-fornix and analyzed the brains 11 months post-lesion.  

METHODS: Lesioning of the rat fimbria-fornix area was achieved by aspiration through the cortex; animals were killed 4 weeks later.  

MD stimulation inhibited PFC neuron firing (approximately 100 msec duration) evoked by fimbria/fornix (FF) stimulation in a majority of neurons tested.  

In experiment 2, the retardation of reinforced CCP learning by involuntary unreinforced pre-exposure was eliminated by fimbria-fornix lesions made before pre-exposure but was unaffected by fimbria-fornix lesions made after pre-exposure but before training. An intact fimbria-fornix is required for acquisition but not expression of this form of learning.  

There is strong staining of versican but not of aggrecan in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus by E19, whereas both aggrecan and alpha-versican are present in the fimbria.  

To examine the regeneration capacity of dorsal septohippocampal neurons in the presence of an artificial growth-promoting substrate, biocompatible polymeric hydrogels were implanted between the septum and the hippocampus in a fimbria-fornix lesion cavity. These results confirm the regeneration capacity of severed septohippocampal neurons into polymeric substrates used as a bridge inserted in a fimbria-fornix lesion cavity.  

The anatomical structures delineating the temporal horn have also to be well-recognized by the surgeon from inside the ventricle, namely: the hippocampus with its tiny fimbria bundle, the choroidal fissure and its velum with the attached choroid plexus, fed by the anterior and postero-lateral choroidal arteries.  

Stem-axons were primarily seen in the fimbria and alveus.  

Structures damaged include the corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, and fimbria/fornix projections from the hippocampus.  

In adult rats, both a single administration or seven daily injections of Neotrofin at 10, 30 or 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally increased HO-1 immunoreactivity in neurons of the hippocampal formation and its connections including CA1-4, fornix, septal nuclei, hippocampal commissure, septohippocampal nucleus, fimbria, anteroventral thalamic nucleus, frontal and parietal cortex.  

Male Long-Evans rats sustained injections of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) into the fimbria-fornix and the cingular bundle or/and intraseptal injections of 192 IgG-saporin to induce serotonergic or/and cholinergic hippocampal denervations; Sham-operated rats served as controls.  

Lesions of the fimbria-fornix (FF) tract cause profound impairments of cognitive ability in animals.  

The purpose of the present study was threefold: develop a task in which mice center their exploration from a home base, determine whether the exploratory behavior is organized, and evaluate the role of fimbria-fornix lesions on exploration. Video records of control and fimbria-fornix mice were made in both light and dark (infrared light) conditions. The bedding-centered behavior and outward trips of the fimbria-fornix mice were similar to those of the control mice, but significantly fewer direct return trips occurred. Because the fimbria-fornix lesions disrupted the homeward component of exploratory trips, we conclude that the fimbria-fornix may contribute to dead reckoning in mice.  

The fimbria-fornix (FF) is the main subcortical input to the hippocampus.  

To investigate the relation between cholinergic neurotransmission and APP metabolism, and the possible role of cholinergic dysfunction in the development of amyloid neuropathology, we lesioned the fimbria-fornix pathway in APP+PS1 double transgenic mice, at 5 and 7 months of age. The fimbria-fornix transection resulted in a substantial depletion of cholinergic markers in the hippocampus at both time points. At 11 months postlesion, the fimbria-fornix lesion did not result in an alteration in either the hippocampal Abeta levels or the extent of Abeta deposition, as assessed by amyloid plaque counts and image analysis of Abeta load in the 18-month-old APP+PS1 mice.  

To enhance a divergence in the ability for spatial performance, some of the animals received fimbria-fornix (FF) transection 14 days before the experiments.  

To assess the behavioral consequences of amyloid accumulation in the hippocampal formation, we compared the effects of APP+PS1 (AP) genotype and fimbria-fornix (FFX) transection, either alone or combined, on various spatial learning and memory tasks.  

However, these electrolytic lesions were nonselective and may have also damaged the subcortical inputs to the hippocampus via the fimbria-fornix.  

GFAP was increased by more than 50-fold, specifically within the neuropil of CA1-CA3, and by twofold in portions of fimbria.  

Adult Long-Evans male rats sustained injections of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine into the fimbria-fornix (2.5 microg/side) and the cingular bundle (1.5 microg/side) and/or to intraseptal injections of 192 IgG-saporin (0.4 microg/side) in order to deprive the hippocampus of its serotonergic and cholinergic innervations, respectively.  

At the longer survival times (3 weeks-3 months), 63-76% of transplanted cells migrated into the fimbria hippocampus regardless of injection site, perhaps due to cues from the degenerating hippocampus.  

For 263K animals, astrocytic ir-aFGF staining was significantly greater than in either control or 139H-infected hamsters in the following regions: cortex, putamen, corpus callosum, thalamus, hypothalamus, fimbria, hippocampus, subependymal areas, and amygdala.  

We investigated the contribution of the NO-cGMP system in the neurotransmission elicited by hippocampal nerve signals which are propagated to the nucleus accumbens via the fornix/fimbria. Basal release of amino acid transmitters was not influenced by NS 2028 and the NO synthase inhibitor, 7-NINA.Electrical stimulation of the fornix/fimbria increased the outflow of aspartate, glutamate and GABA in the nucleus accumbens. UK-114,542 also enhanced the evoked release of glutamate and aspartate while evoked GABA release was not influenced by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor.These findings indicate that NO plays the role of an excitatory transmitter in the nucleus accumbens and that nerve signals from the hippocampus propagated via fornix/fimbria induce NO synthesis in the nucleus accumbens.  

After the CF is opened posteriorly to the plexal point between the tenia fimbria and the choroid plexus, the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) in the ambient cistern can be observed with minimal caudal retraction of the hippocampus.  

PSA-NCAM immunocytochemistry reveals labeled neurons in the subiculum, fimbria, alveus, hilus, and stratum oriens, lucidum and radiatum of CA3 and CA1. These neurons show long straight dendrites, which reach several strata and even enter the fimbria and the alveus.  

CNTF-immunoreactive astrocytes were exclusively found in white matter structures such as the optical tract, the corticospinal tract, and the fimbria-fornix.  

The fimbria-fornix aspiration is a well-known animal model mimicking hippocampal cholinergic deficiency. The aim of the present study was to use in vivo lipid-mediated gene transfer to introduce an expression vector coding for the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase into the hippocampus to replace the loss of enzyme activity after unilateral fimbria-fornix aspiration. Unilateral fimbria-fornix aspiration led to a marked reduction in the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the hippocampus, which was completely replaced 5 days after lipid-mediated gene transfer of the choline acetyltransferase vector. In conclusion, our data provide evidence that lipid-mediated gene transfer using FuGene is a useful tool to replace loss of choline acetyltranseferase activity in the hippocampus after fimbria-fornix aspiration; however, the lack of good gene transfer efficiency and the transient nature of expression limit its use for clinical applications..  

A comparison of the exploratory behavior of control animals and animals with damage to the fimbria-fornix indicated that the velocity and heading direction of the homeward portion of the trip depends upon the hippocampal formation. While control and fimbria-fornix rats had similar outward segments, the return paths of the fimbria-fornix rats were significantly slower, more circuitous, and more variable compared with that of the control rats.  

Using a radial maze task and different postoperative recovery periods, this experiment assessed and compared the reference and working memory performances of adult Long-Evans male rats subjected to entorhinal cortex, fimbria-fornix, and hippocampus lesions. Conversely, both fimbria-fornix and hippocampus lesions impaired both reference and working memory. While the reference memory deficit was generally similar in both fimbria-fornix and hippocampal lesion groups, analysis of the results for working memory indicated that at the longer delay rats with fimbria-fornix lesions were still impaired but in animals that had the hippocampus removed, working memory did not differ from that of controls. These results suggest that there was some recovery in those rats with hippocampal lesions (e.g., on the working memory task) but both hippocampal and fimbria-fornix animals were still impaired compared to controls when training was delayed 6.5 months following the operations..  

These increases were most prominent in the hippocampal fimbria, corpus callosum and other white matter tracts.  

The neural structures involved in cue use and navigational strategies are still poorly understood, although considerable attention is directed toward the contributions of the hippocampal formation (hippocampus and associated pathways and structures, including the fimbria-fornix and the retrosplenial cortex). (1) Control but not fimbria-fornix lesion rats can return to a novel refuge location in both light and dark (infrared) food carrying tasks. Control but not fimbria-fornix lesion rats make periodic direct high velocity returns to a starting location in both light and dark exploratory tests. Control but not fimbria-fornix rats trained in the light to carry food from a fixed location to a refuge are able to maintain accurate outward and homebound trajectories when tested in the dark. Control but not fimbria-fornix rats are able to correct an outward trajectory to a food source when the food source is moved when allothetic cues are present.  

In an attempt to resolve this issue, the present study compared aspiration and cytotoxic ERC lesioned rats, along with fimbria-fornix (FFX) lesioned animals and sham operated controls, on an unsignalled contextual fear conditioning paradigm.  

The present study compared cytotoxic and aspiration ERC lesions with both fimbria fornix (FFX) lesions and sham-operated controls on two spatial learning tasks which have repeatedly been shown to depend on the hippocampus.  

Nerve signals from the hippocampus to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are transmitted through a glutamatergic pathway via the fornix/fimbria fibres. For this purpose, the NAc of urethane-anaesthetized rats was superfused, by the push-pull technique, with compounds that influence the NO system while the fornix/fimbria was electrically stimulated for short periods. Electrical stimulation of the fornix/fimbria increased the ACh output in the NAc. Our findings indicate, that action potentials propagated by the fornix/fimbria to the NAc release glutamate which increases ACh release predominantly via NMDA receptors.  

PURPOSE: We studied the behavioral effects of an intracavitary implantation of poly[ N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamidel (PHPMA) hydrogels combined to intraseptal grafts of fetal septal cell suspensions in adult female rats subjected to aspirative fimbria-fornix lesions.  

Axons in the subiculum and the fimbria were heavily labeled, suggesting damage to hippocampal afferent and efferent fibers.  

In choline-supplemented animals compared to controls, the number of cells with nuclear immunoreactivity for p15Ink4b CDKI protein was decreased 2- to 3-fold in neuroepithelial ventricular zones and adjacent subventricular zones corresponding to the fimbria, primordial dentate gyrus and Ammon's horn regions in the fetal hippocampus.  

The distribution of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was studied in the septum and hippocampus of rats at various time intervals after fimbria-fornix (FF) transection. No increase in cPLA2 or HNE immunoreactivity was observed in neurons of the medial septum after fimbria-fornix transection, even though these showed a decrease in ChAT staining after the lesion. We conclude that there is free-radical damage, as evidenced by HNE formation in neurons of the lateral septum after fimbria-fornix transection, and that this increase in HNE is dependent on phospholipase A2 activity..  

In the present study, therefore, we addressed the possible relationship between spatial learning ability and LTP by using rats with bilateral fimbria-fornix lesions.  

TN-C-positive cells were found in the ventricular germinative zone of the hippocampus as early as the 15th gestational day, and the labeled cells in the zone apposed to the fimbria migrated tangentially through the subpial area towards the forming dentate gyrus.  

Changes in the metabolic activity within the brain of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) were investigated and compared with biochemical alterations in the hippocampus induced by fimbria/fornix transection in the rat.  

Tetanic stimulation of the fimbria potentiated hippocampal-evoked firing activity of NAc neurons and increased DA extracellular levels. In neurons that received converging input from the hippocampus and BLA, fimbria tetanus potentiated hippocampal-evoked firing activity and suppressed BLA-evoked activity in the same neurons. Both D(1) and NMDA receptors participated in the potentiation of fimbria-evoked activity, whereas the suppression of BLA-evoked activity was blocked by either D(1) receptor antagonism with SCH23390 or the adenosine A(1) antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,2-dimethylxanthine. Coincidental tetanus of both the fimbria and BLA resulted in potentiation of both inputs, indicating that DA and adenosine-mediated suppression of BLA-evoked firing was activity-dependent.  

Immunostaining for myelin basic protein (MBP) at the fimbria hippocampus and the internal capsule areas in the 7-day-old BACO rat brain was also much less than in the control rat brain.  

In this paper, we investigate the expression of brevican in the postnatal hippocampal fimbria to explore the role of the proteoglycan in central nervous system fiber tract development. We demonstrate that brevican is expressed by both oligodendrocytes and white matter astrocytes in the fimbria, but the expression of brevican in these two glial cell types is differently regulated during development. At P14, brevican immunoreactivity was observed throughout the fimbria, with particularly strong immunoreactivity in the developing interfascicular glial rows. In the adult fimbria, no brevican expression was observed in oligodendrocytes. In the adult fimbria, brevican expression was restricted to astrocytes. In situ hybridization with isoform-specific probes and RNase protection assays showed that the authentic, secreted form of brevican, not the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored variant, is the predominant species expressed in the developing fimbria.  

Wistar rats with hippocampal damage (inflicted by a bilateral lesion of the fimbria fornix), rats with damage to the medial prefrontal cortex, and control-operated rats were examined for their performance in either one of two different spatial tasks in a Morris water maze, a place learning task (requiring a locale system), or a response learning task (requiring a taxon system). Performance of the classical place learning (allocentric) task was found to be impaired in rats with lesions of the fimbria fornix, but not in rats with damage of the medial prefrontal cortex, while the opposite effect was found in the response learning (egocentric) task. When the place learning task was modified by relocating the platform, the impairment in animals with fimbria fornix lesions was even more pronounced than before, while the performance of animals with medial prefrontal cortex lesions was similar to that of their controls. When the task was again modified by changing the hidden platform for a clearly visible one (visual cue task), the animals with fimbria fornix lesions had, at least initially, shorter latencies than their controls.  

The EPSP-spike (E-S) potentiation induced by pairing SUM and PP stimulation was abolished by lesions of the fimbria--fornix, a major pathway of SUM afferents.  

Age-dependent cellular, anatomical, and physiological changes of the 5-HTT were evaluated in female Fischer 344 rats (2 and 17 months) following denervation of the serotonergic afferents (fimbria-fornix and cingulum bundle) to the dorsal hippocampus using the neurotoxicant 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT).  

Lesions of the hippocampus or the fimbria-fornix produce a pronounced hyperactivity in rats. Consistent with this possibility, the present study found that fimbria-fornix transection produced hyperactivity which, although undetectable immediately after surgery, gradually became apparent and then continued to increase over the course of several days. To address this issue, local anaesthetic was infused into the fimbria-fornix via chronic indwelling cannulae, in order to silence the hippocampal inputs to the nucleus accumbens.  

We used antidromic activation of region CA3 from the fimbria to test the hypothesis that, if gap junctions exist between CA3 pyramidal cell axons, they should cause cross-talk between cells. Our studies support the existence of gap junction coupling between CA3 pyramidal cell axons in the fimbria that can be acutely modulated by 2nd messengers..  

Strong p38 immunoreactivity was apparent in fiber bundles including the olfactory tract, anterior commissure, corpus callosum, cingulum, internal capsule, stria terminalis, fimbria and alveus hippocampi, fornix, stria medullaris, optic chiasm and optic tract.  

These afferents travel to the temporal cortex through three pathways, namely the anterior temporal stem, the amygdala and the fornix-fimbria, and all these three pathways are damaged in dense medial temporal amnesia.  

Mature rats were given lesions of the hippocampus (HIPPO), subiculum (SUBIC) or fimbria-fornix (FIFO) and then received the mild chronic stressors of food deprivation and isolation housing for ten months prior to testing.  

All of the rats were ovariectomized; the fimbria/fornix, which contains the majority of subcortical efferents to the hippocampus, was transected unilaterally in each, and half of the animals received estrogen replacement. In the estrogen-treated rats, contralateral to the fimbria/fornix transection, the spine density of CA1 pyramidal cells increased dramatically, compared to the spine density values of both the ipsilateral and contralateral hippocampi of non-estrogen-treated animals and to that of the ipsilateral hippocampus of the estrogen replaced rats.These observations indicate that fimbria/fornix transection itself does not considerably influence CA1 area pyramidal cell spine density and, most importantly, that the estrogenic effect on hippocampal morphology, in addition to directly affecting the hippocampus, involves subcortical mediation..  

We show that netrin 1 and its receptor, Dcc, are expressed in the developing fimbria and in projection neurons, respectively, and that netrin 1 promotes the outgrowth of hippocampal axons in vitro via DCC receptors.  

Adult female rats sustained aspirative fimbria-fornix lesions and, 2 weeks later, received intrahippocampal grafts of fetal septal or mixed septal-raphe cell suspensions.  

The locomotor effects of acute amphetamine treatment (1 mg/kg, i.p.) were assessed in Long-Evans rats after 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5, 7-DHT) injections into the fimbria-fornix/cingular bundle (FiFx/CB; 4 microg/side), or the dorsal and median raphe (Raphe; 10 microg).  

Lesions of the fimbria-fornix disrupt auditory gating by preventing cholinergic stimulation of the hippocampus. DMXB-A restored auditory gating in the fimbria-fornix-lesioned rats, indicating that activation of the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor alone is sufficient to restore auditory gating following lesions of the fimbria-fornix. Restoration of auditory gating by DMXB-A in the fimbria-fornix-lesioned rats was blocked by intracerebroventricular infusion of alpha-bungarotoxin, but not by mecamylamine or dihydro-beta-erythroidine.  

In vivo, following fimbria fornix transection, the number of immunohistochemically stained septal cholinergic neurons fell significantly to 18% in rats given continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of vehicle, whereas in rats given NGF the number of these neurons did not differ significantly from unoperated controls.  

Previous experiments have shown that this form of spatial learning, measured in this way, requires an intact fimbriafornix and functional N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Previous work showed that this form of "pure" spatial learning requires an intact fimbria-fornix for acquisition but not for expression; the present findings suggest that the hippocampus is not required for either of these processes. The fimbria-fornix may interact with other temporal lobe structures in mediating this form of learning.  

Following fimbria fornix transection in adult mice, few basal forebrain neurons contained SEK1p while many axotomized choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons contained c-Junp and nuclear NFKappaB-p50.  

Female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent aspirative lesion of the fimbria to produce septohippocampal disconnection. fimbrial lesion, moreover, also declined both stimulated ACh release and tissue ACh levels in hippocampal slices.  

The 5-hydroxytryptamine innervation of hippocampus originates from the median raphe via the cingulum bundle and the fimbria-fornix. Lesioning of the cingulum bundle has previously been shown to cause sprouting of intact 5-hydroxytryptamine afferents originating from the unharmed fimbria-fornix.  

A disconnection procedure was used to test whether projections from the hippocampus to the anterior thalamic nuclei (AT), via the fimbria-fornix (FX), form functional components of a spatial memory system.  

Using adult Long-Evans male rats, this experiment compared spontaneous (assessed 15 days and 4.5 months after surgery) and amphetamine-induced (assessed from 4.5 months after surgery onwards; 1 mg/kg, i.p., ten injections, 48 h apart) locomotor activity following N-methyl-D-aspartate lesions of the entorhinal cortex, electrolytic lesions of the fimbria-fornix, or ibotenate lesions of the hippocampus. Hippocampal and fimbria-fornix lesions, but not entorhinal-cortex lesions induced diurnal and nocturnal hyperactivity, which was attenuated over time, but only in rats with fimbria-fornix lesions. Lesions of the entorhinal cortex potentiated the locomotor effects of amphetamine, but not lesions of the hippocampus or interruption of the axons in the fimbria-fornix pathway. Sensitization appeared to be decreased by fimbria-fornix lesions and to be prevented by hippocampal lesions. These results clearly show that lesions of the fimbria-fornix, the hippocampus, and of the entorhinal cortex have different effects on spontaneous and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, as they also have on learning and memory tasks..  

To ascertain the possible mediation of the septo-hippocampal projection we have transected the fimbria-fornix (FF) fiber system in young adult (2 months) male rats.  

Electrical stimulations at the CA3 stratum radiatum or stratum oriens activate both commissural and associational (C/A) synapses, whereas stimulations at ventral fimbria mainly activate commissural synapses.  

Female golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) received aspiration lesions of the parahippocampal region (PARA) or electrolytic lesions of the fimbria-fornix (FNX) and were tested for their (a) discrimination between odors of individual males in a habituation-discrimination task, (b) preference for male over female odors, and (c) scent-marking in response to conspecific odors.  

mRNA, Western analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to study the expression of the small heat shock protein (HSP) 27 in the rat septum and hippocampus following fimbria-fornix lesions, a model of neurodegeneration and regeneration.  

The present report describes tissue tears in the white matter, particularly in the fimbria of Sprague-Dawley rats killed 12, 24, and 48 h and 7 days after lateral fluid percussion brain injury of moderate severity (2.1-2.4 atm).  

Changes in gene expression within the hippocampus induced by denervation after electrolytic fimbria-fornix lesion in rat were compared to morphological and biochemical alterations. fimbria-fornix lesion results in degeneration of hippocampal cholinergic terminals as evidenced by a sustained (2 days to 1 month) decrease in cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT) activity (50%).  

Myelin basic protein staining, as a marker of myelin, was clearly observed in the internal capsule and the fimbria hippocampus in the rat brain from the control group.  

The present experiments tested the effects of conventional (dorsal aspiration and electrolytic) and excitotoxic (N-methyl-D-aspartate [ NMDA]) hippocampal lesions and fimbria-fornix (FF) transection on prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle response and on open-field activity.  

Rats that had been pretrained on 2 tests of allocentric memory (water maze and T maze) received bilateral cytotoxic lesions in the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) or transection of the fimbria-fornix (FF).  

Its location corresponds to the fimbrial anlage, and immunocytochemical localization of M1 protein indicates its expression in radial glial cells. Later, M2 expression is found in association with the corpus callosum, hippocampal commissure, fimbria, optic nerve, stria medullaris, mamillothalamic tract and habenulopeduncular tract.  

RESULTS: The intraventricular elements are the hippocampus, fimbria, amygdala, and choroidal fissure; the extraventricular elements are the uncus and parahippocampal and dentate gyri. The choroidal fissure is located between the thalamus and fimbria; it begins at the inferior choroidal point behind the head of the hippocampus and constitutes the medial wall of the posterior two-thirds of the temporal horn.  

In the present study, it is illustrated that in the homozygous apo E deficient mice of advancing age, a great number of foamy macrophages extravasate from microvessels in thalamus and fimbria hippocampi, and scatter in the perivascular regions and migrate toward the ependyma, fimbria hippocampi, hippocampus, and thalamus.  

We recently reported that the pretraining induction of long-term potentiation in the lateral septum by fimbrial tetanic stimulation altered contextual fear conditioning in mice. Mice implanted with stimulating electrodes in the fimbria and recording electrodes in the lateral septal were conditioned to acquire fear towards a novel context using a footshock procedure. The level of fimbrial-lateral septal synaptic neurotransmission was manipulated using either fimbrial tetanic stimulation (which induced septal long-term potentiation) alone, or followed by fimbrial low-frequency stimulation producing depotentiation of the previously established long-term potentiation. The results showed that (i) septal long-term potentiation induced either prior to acquisition or only prior to retention testing impaired conditioned freezing; and (ii) the impairing effect of pretraining induction of long-term potentiation on conditioned freezing was not only abolished by fimbrial low-frequency stimulation administered prior to retention testing but actually produced enhanced conditioned freezing with respect to controls. These data suggest that the level of fimbrial-lateral septal synaptic neurotransmission may influence the expression, but not the acquisition, of contextual fear conditioning..  

As previously reported, specific binding for CB(1) receptors was also detected at GD21 in white matter areas, such as the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, fornix, fimbria, stria medullaris, stria terminalis, and fasciculus retroflexum. With the exception of the anterior commissure and the fimbria, specific binding progressively decreased at PND1 and PND5 until disappearing in the adult brain. In the fimbria, the highest values of binding were seen at PND1, but binding also completely disappeared in the adult brain, whereas in the anterior commissure, specific binding at PND1 and PND5 was lesser than that observed at GD21 and, particularly, in adulthood.  

In agreement with the mild effects of excitotoxic septal lesions on hippocampal physiology compared with fimbria-fornix lesions and septal inactivation, we observed limited lesion effects on single-unit activity.  

Since fibers originating in the subiculum and destined for the nucleus accumbens run through the fimbria-fornix, we assessed the effects of radiofrequency lesion or transection of the fimbria-fornix, on latent inhibition. In spite of the above, latent inhibition remained unaffected by both fimbria-fornix lesions, indicating that the critical projections subserving latent inhibition are not those traversing the fimbria-fornix from the hippocampus/subiculum to the nucleus accumbens.  

Seven days after TBI, brains were perfusion-fixed, coronal sections at various levels were digitized, and contusion areas in the superficial, middle and deep layers of cortex and in the underlying fimbria were measured.  

The PCNA-immunopositive astrocytes were most frequently found in cerebral cortex, corpus callosum, subependymal areas, fimbria, caudate, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and dentate gyrus.  

Control rats and fimbria-fornix-ablated rats were trained to follow linear, polygonal, and octagonal scent trails that led to a piece of food. fimbria-fornix rats successfully used allothetic cues (closed the polygon using visual cues or tracked back on the string) but were insensitive to the direction and distance of the refuge and were lost when restricted to idiothetic cues.  

By using fimbria-fornix-lesioned mice, we have also demonstrated that repeated CCK-8 i.p. Parallel to the effects on NGF, CCK-8 increases choline acetyltransferase (Chat) activity in forebrain when injected in unlesioned mice and counteract the septo-hippocampal Chat alterations in fimbria-fornix-lesioned mice.  

fimbria-fornix transection produces neuronal injury in the septum. Because these cellular changes are reminiscent of some of the morphological abnormalities seen with glutamate receptor-mediated excitoxicity, we tested whether excitotoxic injury to the septal complex of adult rats mimics the degeneration observed within the dorsolateral septal nucleus and medial septal nucleus following fimbria-fornix transection. The septal complex was evaluated at various time-points (6 h to 14 days) by light and electron microscopy following unilateral injection of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist quinolinate or the non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist kainate, and the morphological changes observed were compared to those abnormalities in the medial septal nucleus and dorsolateral septal nucleus at three to 14 days after fimbria-fornix transection. These similarities were most evident when comparing the persistently injured neurons in the penumbral regions of the excitotoxic lesions at one to 14 days recovery to neurons in the medial septal nucleus and dorsolateral septal nucleus at seven and 14 days after fimbria-fornix transection. Pretreatment with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist dizocilpine maleate prior to unilateral fimbria-fornix transection attenuated the somatodentritic vacuolar damage found within the ipsilateral dorsolateral and medial septal nuclei at 14 days recovery. Because glutamate is the principal transmitter of hippocampal efferents within the fimbria-fornix, we conclude that postsynaptic glutamate receptor activation participates in the evolution of septal neuron injury following fimbria-fornix transection.  

Three-month old Long-Evans female rats were submitted to aspirative lesions of the fimbria-fornix and intrahippocampal grafts of a cell suspension prepared from a region of the fetal brain including the septum and the diagonal band of Broca (rich in cholinergic neurons) or the raphe (rich in serotonergic neurons). Altogether, these data suggest that damage to the serotonergic afferents of the hippocampus might play some role in the potentiation of amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion associated with fimbria-fornix lesions..  

The activities of the enzymes glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were studied in several rat brain areas following the aspirative transection of the septohippocampal pathway (fimbria fornix) and the administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) or cytochrome c. These findings show that the insult resulting from the aspiration of the fimbria fornix bundle involves modifications in glutathione-related enzymes, and, therefore, in the antioxidant status of brain tissue.  

fimbria-fornix lesions disrupt important parts of serotonergic and noradrenergic hippocampal afferents and elicit sprouting of sympathetic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion. Hippocampal slices of sham-operated (SHAM) and fimbria-fornix-lesioned (LES) rats (14 months after surgery) were preincubated with [ 3H]5-HT, superfused continuously, and stimulated electrically using two stimulation conditions: either (a) 360 pulses 3 Hz, or (b) 20 pulses 100 Hz (2 ms, 28 mA, 4 V/chamber).  

We investigated the effects of localized medial and lateral CPu lesions and fornix/fimbria lesions on responses to a local cue and to behavior based on cognitive-spatial information in the water maze. Fornix/fimbria lesions prevented spatial but not cue learning and produced a preference for the cue response on the competition test.  

Microinotophoretically administered VP excited single neurons in the lateral septum of ventral hippocampus, and/or facilitated the responses of these neurons to glutamate and to stimulation of the glutamatergic afferent fibers in the fimbria bundle. A low-frequency electrical stimulation in the diagonal Band of Broca or in the Bed nucleus of the stria terminals, sources of the vasopressinergic innervation of the septum, facilitated the negative wave of the filed potentials responses evoked in the lateral septum by stimulating the fimbria bundle fibers in control Long-Evans and Brattleboro rats heterozygous for diabetes insipidus. The field potential increase was sustained for several hours after the stimulation, and it was not occluded by long-term potentiation elicited by high frequency stimulation of the fimbria bundle afferent fibers.  

A high level of MRP mRNA expression was also observed in the white matter of the fimbria/fornix.  

When temporal discrimination is examined by a peak interval (PI) procedure in rats, a shortening of peak time is induced by the fimbria-fornix (FF) lesion.  

Using a combination of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and an unbiased computer-assisted image analysis method, we found that modulation of dietary choline availability changed the distribution and migration of precursor cells born on E16 in the fimbria, primordial dentate gyrus, and Ammon's horn of the fetal hippocampus.  

On the basis of previous experimental evidence, it has been concluded that the entorhinal cortex (EC), the fimbria-fornix (FF) complex and medial septal area (MSA) do not take part in the consolidation phase of passive avoidance response (PAR) memorization.  

Four separate cohorts of rats were employed to examine the effects of cytotoxic retrohippocampal lesions in four spatial memory tasks which are known to be sensitive to direct hippocampal damage and/or fornix-fimbria lesions in the rat.  

The main S100A6-immunoreactive elements were 1) neuronal somata and dendrites in some specific regions of the limbic system (e.g., the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, ventral tip of the CA1-subicular border region, entorhinal cortex, and parasubiculum), most of which were identified as a subpopulation of pyramidal cells; 2) olfactory receptor cells and olfactory nerve fibers and terminals in the olfactory bulb; 3) some tracts of the hindbrain and spinal cord (e.g., the spinal trigeminal tract, solitary tract, dorsal root fibers, and the tract of Lissauer) and their terminals (e.g., the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus, spinal trigeminal nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, marginal zone, substantia gelatinosa, and proper sensory nucleus of the dorsal horn), as well as some sensory neurons of their origins in the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia; 4) a subpopulation of astrocytes in the white matter (e.g., the corpus callosum, cingulum, external capsule, internal capsule, and fimbria of the hippocampus) and around the ventricles; 5) some ependymal cells, especially around the central canal; and 6) Schwann cells.  

Slices from the ventral hippocampus (only dentate gyrus+CA3 region) of sham-operated (SHAM) and fimbria-fornix lesioned (LES) Long-Evans rats (8-10 months after surgery) were preincubated with [ 3H]NA and stimulated either once (S1) with 100 microM nicotine or (in parallel experiments) twice electrically (S1, S2), using conditions (six pulses 100 Hz, 2 ms, 28 mA, 4 V/chamber) that precluded autoinhibition.  

Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been shown to support the survival of axotomized medial septal cholinergic neurons after aspirative lesions of the fimbria-fornix (FF).  

NTT4 is detected beginning at E18 in various parts of the rat brain, including the cerebral cortex, fimbria hippocampi, fornix, lateral lemniscus, anterior commissure, and spinal cord. At E18, strong immunoreactivity of NTT4 is observed in the cortical subplate and marginal layers that later develops into the fimbria hippocampi, and at P22, the expression of NTT4 in the hippocampal formation reaches the mature form.  

Furthermore, the fimbria-fornix-hippocampal commissure transection procedures induced the calretinin expression in some of these dorsal GluR2/3 immunoreactive cells.  

The main, myelinated axon trunks turned towards the fimbria.  

While mild and moderate injury resulted for the most part in similar patterns of axonal injury, tissue tears in the fimbria and loss of NF immunoreactivity in regions containing injured axons were only observed following moderate injury.  

Many aggregations of PrPSc could be seen in the cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra and around the Pia mater, corpus callosum, fimbria, ventricles, and blood vessels in sections from 139H- and/or 263K-positive animals.  

Previous work showed that chronic nicotine infusion still caused a significant improvement in working memory performance in the radial-arm maze after knife-cut lesions of the fimbria-fornix carrying the septo-hippocampal cholinergic innervation.  

Eight weeks following axotomy, the number of VAChT- and ChAT-immunopositive neurons had increased to almost 50% in fimbria-fornix-lesioned animals, indicating coordinate reexpression of both cholinergic markers in recovered neurons. Thus, with use of immunological techniques, there appears to be coordinate expression of VAChT and ChAT in the septohippocampal pathway following either unilateral fimbria-fornix or bilateral immunotoxin lesion..  

Since fibers originating in the subiculum and destined for the NAC run through the fimbria-fornix, we assessed the effects of fimbria-fornix lesion, made using a knife cut, on LI. In addition, we assessed the effects of the fimbria-fornix cut in three tests known to be sensitive to lesions to the hippocampal region, namely, spontaneous activity, two-way active avoidance and delayed-non-matching-to-sample. In accord with previously documented effects of lesions to the hippocampus and related structures, the fimbria-fornix cut increased spontaneous activity (Experiment 1), facilitated the acquisition of two-way active avoidance (Experiment 3), and produced a delay-dependent deficit in the delayed-non-match-to-sample task (Experiment 4), demonstrating that it disrupted hippocampal functioning. In contrast, LI remained unaffected by the fimbria-fornix cut (Experiment 2), indicating that disruption of subicular input to the NAC is not responsible for the attenuation of LI following non-selective hippocampal lesions.  

To determine if the effect of nitric oxide was presynaptic or postsynaptic to nicotinic receptors, rats with lesions of the fimbria/fornix, which removes the medial septal projection to the hippocampus, were tested with nicotine in the presence of L- or D-NAME. fimbria/fornix lesions normally reduce sensory inhibition, which is restored with systemic nicotine injections.  

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether transection of the septohippocampal bundle (fimbria-fornix, FF) and administration of Cerebrolysin induce alterations in antioxidant mechanisms.  

Furthermore, multiple synaptic connections of both neuronal populations forming the septohippocampal pathway may contribute to their high rate of survival after fimbria-fornix transection..  

Rats of different developmental ages (P6, P9, P14, P21, P28 and P42) were then subjected to bilateral fimbria-fornix transection resulting in the axotomy of septohippocampal projection neurons. In addition, a co-localization of immunostaining for c-JUN and the neuropeptide galanin was found after lesion, as both proteins were induced in the same medial septal neurons following fimbria-fornix transection.  

The ability of rats to learn the location of a hidden platform in a swim maze was compared in animals with excitotoxic lesions of the anterior or posterior (retrosplenial) cingulate cortex or radiofrequency lesions of the cingulum bundle or fimbria-fornix.  

Groups of normal rats and rats with bilateral lesions of the fimbria-fornix, lateral-basolateral complex of the amygdala, or dorsal striatum were tested with the shifted and unshifted procedures. A neural system that includes fimbria-fornix is required to retain information about reduced reward over the 3-min ITI.  

All animals received a complete lesion of the fimbria-fornix (FF).  

The fimbria-fornix transection paradigm has been used as a model of retrograde neurodegeneration within the medial septal nucleus and anterograde degeneration of axon terminals within the lateral septal nucleus. Because the maintenance and survival of neurons may depend on the integrity of both efferents and afferents, the ultrastructure of neurons in the medial septal nucleus and dorsolateral septal nucleus was analysed at three, seven, 14, 30 days, and six months following unilateral transection of the fimbria-fornix in adult rats. Degeneration of axonal and somatodendritic compartments occurred in both nuclei on the side ipsilateral to fimbria-fornix transection.  

EAAC1 is strongly expressed by a heretofore unrecognized group of cells in white matter tracts such as the corpus callosum, fimbria-fornix or anterior commissure.  

The stereotaxic administration of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was employed to induce the fully reversible inactivation of the fimbria-fornix complex (FF) and of the entorhinal cortex (EC), in order to ascertain the role of these structures in the memorization of a passive avoidance response (PAR).  

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