Lateral Ventricle

In this report, we describe a novel combination of the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach with the endoscopic transventricular approach to remove a giant pituitary macroadenoma extending into the third and lateral ventricles. A second endoscope was then advanced into the lateral ventricle through a pre-coronal burr hole to assist in mobilizing the tumor and assure a complete resection.  

Stroke increases neuroblasts in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and these neuroblasts migrate toward the ischemic boundary to replace damaged neurons.  

SNAP 7941 produced similar results when administered at a low dose (0.01 nmol) into the lateral ventricle (i.c.v.).  

One day after right MCAO, 30 muL of cell suspension containing 1x10(6) cells were injected into the lateral ventricle of MCAO+ADSC-treated group and the same dose of PBS was given to the vehicle group.  

Materials and Methods: We used 30 cadavers' right lateral ventricle central parts of choroid plexus as material.  

BACKGROUND: Many psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with mild enlargement of the lateral ventricles thought to have origins in prenatal brain development. Little is known about development of the lateral ventricles and the relationship of prenatal lateral ventricle enlargement with postnatal brain development. METHODS: We performed neonatal magnetic resonance imaging on 34 children with isolated mild ventriculomegaly (MVM; width of the atrium of the lateral ventricle >/= 1.0 cm) on prenatal ultrasound and 34 age- and sex-matched control subjects with normal prenatal ventricle size. lateral ventricle and cortical gray and white matter volumes were assessed. RESULTS: Neonates with prenatal MVM had significantly larger lateral ventricle volumes than matched control subjects (286.4%; p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal enlargement of the lateral ventricle is associated with enlargement of the lateral ventricles after birth, as well as greater gray matter volumes and delayed or abnormal maturation of white matter.  

In each case the width of the body of the lateral ventricle was reduced and the foramen of Monro was obscured.  

The topography of the arterial supply and venous drainage was visualised by corrosion casting and scanning electron microscopy in the human foetal (20 weeks) choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle.  

CASE REPORT: We present a 22-year-old patient who developed ASDH with a moderate midline shift and compression of lateral ventricle after a truncal collision but without a direct beat on the head.  

Operative findings revealed a massive tumor connected to gelatinous, transparent membranous tissue (MT), which extended from the paraventricular zone and continued into the lateral ventricle.  

Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with arterial and venous catheters and a cannula was placed in the lateral ventricle for intracerebroventricular (ICV) leptin infusion.  

METHODS: Within a population-based cohort study, we measured the size of the lateral ventricle of the fetus' brain twice during pregnancy. RESULTS: The size of the lateral ventricle of the fetuses in midpregnancy was not related to temperamental difficulties in infants; however, smaller lateral ventricles in late pregnancy were associated with higher activity levels at the age of 6 months.  

We have recently shown that mu opioid receptors are expressed on radial glia of the lateral ventricle, the neuronal and glial progenitor cells of the developing cortex.  

To analyze catheter placement, we used a new grading system: Grade 1, optimal placement in the ipsilateral frontal horn or third ventricle; Grade 2, functional placement in the contralateral lateral ventricle or noneloquent cortex; and Grade 3, suboptimal placement in the eloquent cortex or nontarget cerebrospinal fluid space, with or without functional drainage.  

Identification of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle was followed by resection of the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, and the uncus.  

Thanks to the size of the brain structures in sheep, we analyse separately the CP from 4th ventricle (4V) and the CP from the lateral ventricle (LV).  

Based on the measurement of the diameter of the atrium of the lateral ventricle, severe and mild ventriculomegaly was diagnosed in 142/230 (61.7%) and 88/230 cases (38.3%), respectively. Regarding the practice of ultrasonography, mild ventriculomegaly (transverse diameter of the lateral ventricle <15 mm) has a much better prognosis than the severe form (transverse diameter of the lateral ventricle >15 mm) of the malformation.  

Only neuropsychologically impaired patients, however, had significantly smaller white matter and larger lateral ventricle volumes than healthy comparison subjects.  

DATA SYNTHESIS: Bipolar disorder was associated with lateral ventricle enlargement (effect size = 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.55; P = 8 x 10(-7)) and increased rates of deep white matter hyperintensities (odds ratio = 2.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.64-3.79; P = 2 x 10(-5)) but not periventricular hyperintensities.  

A young girl presented with a contrast-enhancing cystic mass in the temporal horn of the left lateral ventricle.  

We report the first instance of simultaneous metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the cerebellopontine angle and the lateral ventricle. He also suffered metastases to the lung, both adrenal glands, the L-3 vertebra, and the brain (asymptomatic, but revealed by magnetic resonance imaging): a 1-cm (maximum diameter) mass in the left medullary cistern and a 2-cm (maximum diameter) mass in the right lateral ventricle trigone.  

MR images revealed subcortical lesions of precuneus, superior and inferior parietal lobules in the right hemisphere, around the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle.  

OBJECTIVE: Optimal surgical management in lateral ventricle tumors remains controversial. METHODS: A total of 72 patients underwent surgery for lateral ventricle tumors. CONCLUSION: lateral ventricle tumors can be treated best by careful selection of the approach according to tumor origin and development.  

RESULTS: Tumors were located in the third ventricle in 11 patients and the lateral ventricle in 4 patients.  

A rapid initial evaluation was performed by neonatal lateral ventricle injections.  

We focused on the course, the length, anatomical relations with lateral ventricle and the relevance of these finding during surgery in the region.  

CT images showed asymmetric lateral ventricles, and presence of intra-cranial multiple low absorption lesions surrounded by capsule suggestive of abscess in the right cerebral hemisphere. Multilocular large abscess containing creamy pus was found to occupy most area of periventricular and lateral ventricle.  

In this study, we transplanted these cells into the lateral ventricle of R6/2 transgenic mice in order to examine the efficacy of using these cells for correcting the accumulated polyglutamine storage materials in HD.  

NAAG and NAAG peptidase inhibitors, ZJ43 and 2-PMPA, were microinjected into a lateral ventricle prior to injection of formalin in the rat footpad.  

Postmortem examination of the brain revealed a single 2.1 x 1.0 x 0.8 cm intraventricular nodule in the lateral ventricle.  

CASE REPORT: A tumor arising from the lateral ventricle of a 42-year-old man was almost completely resected.  

The rise in both the core temperature and hypothalamic glutamate and hydroxyl radicals could also be induced by direct injection of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, or IL-6 into the lateral ventricle of rabbit brain.  

We present the case of a 28-year-old man with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhoea due to aqueduct stenosis and a pulsion diverticulum of the lateral ventricle into the frontal air sinus.  

After a short period of basal activity recording, epileptic focus was induced by injecting 400IU/2mul penicillin-G potassium into the left lateral ventricle while the cortical activity was continuously recorded.  

Complete excision of cysts (fourth ventricle, 14; lateral ventricle, 4; third ventricle, 3; both lateral and third ventricles, 1) was performed in all patients.  

AVMs located in the cerebral hemisphere, the cerebellum, the basal ganglia, the brain stem, the corpus callosum, the optic chiasm and the lateral ventricle.  

Computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings suggested a preoperative diagnosis of subependymoma of the left lateral ventricle, which was subsequently confirmed by surgery. The reported case is unusual because symptomatic subependymomas of the lateral ventricle are definitely rare, and almost invariably present with a progressive clinical course over a period of weeks to years..  

Hippocampal volume and lateral ventricle width were measured. There were no significant differences in hippocampal volume or lateral ventricle width.  

Routes of administration include infusion into the lateral ventricle by puncture of the Ommaya reservoir, infusion into the sub arachnoid space by lumbar puncture, or both of these procedures performed alternately or simultaneously, and methods of infusion include bolus injection and ventriculo lumbar perfusion.  

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Awake free-moving mice were infused with the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex4) into the lateral ventricle of the brain in the basal state or during hyperinsulinemic eu-/hyperglycemic clamps.  

The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle contains neural stem and progenitor cells that generate neuroblasts, which migrate to the olfactory bulb where they differentiate into interneurons.  

The same tissue metabolites were labeled in cortex, hypothalamus, and brainstem after microdialysis of (14)C lactate into the lateral ventricle.  

The microvascular architecture of developing lateral ventricle choroid plexus was investigated by corrosion casting and scanning electron microscopy in human fetuses aged 20 gestational weeks.  

Lat1, Mrp1 and Mrp4 were detected on the basal-lateral surface of lateral ventricle choroid plexus epithelial cells.  

Furthermore, the adenoviral transfer of Shh into the lateral ventricle or the blocking of Shh present in the SVZ of adult mice using its physiological antagonist Hedgehog interacting protein or neutralizing Shh antibodies provides in vivo evidence that Shh can retain SVZ-derived neuroblasts.  

Surprisingly, OB interneurons are generated by stem cells not only in the walls of the lateral ventricle facing the striatum but also in the rostral migratory stream and walls of the lateral ventricle facing the cortex and the septum.  

Rats were then implanted with an intracerebroventricular cannula directed to the lateral ventricle and made diabetic with an i.v.  

We previously reported that bombesin injected into the right lateral ventricle evokes the secretion of noradrenaline and adrenaline from adrenal medulla by brain COX-mediated mechanisms in rats.  

We microinjected either FGF2 (200 ng, i.c.v.) or the FG loop (FGL) of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (5 microg, i.c.v.) into the lateral ventricle of rats and tested them on the forced swim test.  

In most of the regions YY1 is not very abundant, but in the olfactory bulb, cerebellar cortex, hippocampus, cerebral cortex, wall of the lateral ventricle and rostral migratory stream intense YY1 staining is observed.  

NSCs labeled with 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) were transplanted into transected rat basal forebrain followed by the injection of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) into the lateral ventricle.  

In parasagittal scans through the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle, regions of interest (ROI) were positioned in the cerebral white matter near the posterior horn (P), anterior horn (A) of the lateral ventricle, and the thalamus (T).  

We present nine cases with lateral ventricle glioblastoma multiforme treated in our department. Seven of the nine tumours were located at the body of the lateral ventricle, whereas the other tumours were arising from septum pellicidum.  

The lateral ventricle was the most common site of involvement in the paediatric group compared with the fourth ventricle in adults.  

GnRH was undetectable in lateral ventricle CSF.  

In the postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ), neuroblasts migrate in chains along the lateral ventricle towards the olfactory bulb. To examine the effects of these receptors on the speed of neuroblast migration, we developed a whole-mount preparation of the entire lateral ventricle from postnatal day (P) 20-25 DCX-GFP mice. These data show that although both GLU(K5) receptor and mGluR5 activations increase Ca(2+) in neuroblasts, only GLU(K5) receptors tonically reduce the speed of neuroblast migration along the lateral ventricle..  

All rats were implanted with a cannula aimed at either the left or right lateral ventricle and 1 week later were infused with NPS (0.075, 0.3, 1.2 nmol) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) and tested for ethanol, food, and water intake.  

Eight patients (89%) had a solitary lesion located in the lateral ventricle close to of the head of the caudate nucleus, the remaining patient (11%) had two tumors, one located close to the head of the left caudate nucleus and the other in the central part of the right lateral ventricle.  

Distinct olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons are thought to become specified depending on from which of the different subregions lining the lateral ventricle wall they originate, but the role of region-specific transcription factors (TFs) in the generation of OB interneurons diversity is still poorly understood.  

via an osmotic minipump connected to a cannula implanted in the left lateral ventricle (300 pmol/day).  

MRI revealed well enhanced mass lesions using gadolinium at bilateral thalamus and right para lateral ventricle with mild perifocal edema. One week later, a stereotactic biopsy for right para lateral ventricle lesion made possible the histological diagnosis of typical germinoma. Our experience suggests that a synchronous lesion at thalamus and para lateral ventricle seems to be due to subependymal infiltration other than CSF dissemination..  

In the present study we determined the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v, lateral ventricle) administration of IL-6 on splenic SND in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats.  

Unilateral infusions of BDNF into the lateral ventricle increased proliferation in the dentate gyrus on the side of the infusion, but this was not observed following implantation of subcutaneous corticosterone, which flattened the diurnal corticosterone rhythm.  

We evaluated the possibility that intracerebroventricular (ICV, lateral ventricle) infusion of exogenous Ang-(1-7) could participate in the potentiation of bradykinin (BK) release and the kinin receptor expression in ischemic brain parenchyma after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats.  

METHODS: rAAV-VEGF, rAAV-null or physiologic saline was delivered into the lateral ventricle of 93 Wistar rats, respectively.  

An internal examination revealed severe pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic hemangiopericytoma arising from the choroid plexus of the right lateral ventricle.  

Injection of Sn(Oct)(2) at 6.28 mg/kg BW (2 mg/kg BW Sn) into right lateral ventricle of the rat brain tended to increase the ambulation distance after 30 days when compared with the control group.  

CT revealed that the tip of the shunting catheter was misplaced in the apex of the right temporal lobe, through the posterior and inferior horn of the right lateral ventricle.  

Sites of lesion location were subcortical white matter (n= 6), basal ganglia (n= 4), corpus callosum (n= 3), extra-axial space including cavernous sinus (n= 5), cerebellum (n= 1), and lateral ventricle (n= 1).  

Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large focal mass occupying the right cerebral hemisphere with moderate dilatation of the contralateral lateral ventricle.  

These hATSCs were injected into the lateral ventricle of the rat brain, after which they migrated to various parts of the brain.  

The results showed that cellular proliferation and neurogenesis were increased along the lateral ventricle wall in the MSC+EPO group, whereas no significant effect was observed in groups receiving MSC or EPO alone.  

To address this issue, we injected citrate into the lateral ventricle of rats.  

In this review, we focus on the role of Pax6 in embryonic and postnatal neurogenesis, namely, production of new neurons from neural stem/progenitor cells, because Pax6 is intensely expressed in these cells from the initial stage of CNS development and in neurogenic niches (the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle) throughout life.  

The patient underwent a left parasagittal frontal craniotomy, the lateral ventricle was accessed via the anterior transcallosal approach, and the aneurysm was removed after sectioning of the parent vessel.  

Intraoperative ultrasound is used to identify the compartments of the lateral ventricles and the choroid plexus prior to catheter insertion. After enlarging an occipital or frontal bur hole to a diameter of 2 cm to accommodate a small-footprint ultrasound probe, a ventricular catheter was carefully advanced into the frontal or occipital horn of the lateral ventricle while continuous ultrasound monitoring was performed.  

On MRI, a solid homogeneously-enhanced tumor was noted in the right lateral ventricle adjacent to the thalamus.  

OBJECT: The purpose of this study was to compare the margins of error of different shunt catheter approaches to the lateral ventricle and assess surface anatomical aiming landmarks for free-hand ventricular catheter insertion in adult patients with hydrocephalus.  

We evaluated brain atrophy using the brain atrophy index (BAI; the ratio of the brain area to the intracranial area) and the ventricular atrophy index (VAI; the ratio of the ventricular area to the brain area) on MRI T1-weighted images at the levels of the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle in horizontal sections. The BAI was significantly lower at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at both the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle levels (basal ganglia level, p=0.02; and lateral ventricle level, p=0.05). Moreover, the VAI was significantly higher at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at the lateral ventricle level (p=0.03).  

The objective of this paper is to characterise the frequency of different surgical techniques for targeting the lateral ventricle in shunt surgery and the attitudes of Australasian neurosurgeons and advanced neurosurgical trainees to stereotactic adjuncts. Twenty-seven neurosurgeons (25%) preferred the posterior approach to the atrium or body of the lateral ventricle. Posterior approaches to the lateral ventricle using freehand techniques are preferred among NSA members and their trainees but there are a wide variety of landmarks used.  

It is based on the exposure of insula and semi-circular sulci, providing access to the lateral ventricle through a supra- and infra-insular window.  

Following ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of gadolinium injected into the lateral ventricle also demonstrated CSF flow from the foramina of Luschka.  

CONCLUSION: Neuronavigation facilitates a safe and targeted contralateral interhemispheric transcallosal approach to the dominant hemisphere's lateral ventricle.  

Symptomatic choroids plexus cysts have only been infrequently reported, predominantly in the lateral ventricle.  

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at the Conception Vessel on proliferation and differentiation of the nerve stem cells in the inferior zone of the lateral ventricle in cerebral ischemia rats. RESULTS: As compared with the 7-day control group (C-7d group), there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the numbers of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu) positive cells, Brdu/GFAP, Brdu/Nestin and Brdu/Nse double-labeled cells in the inferior zone of the lateral ventricle in the EA group 7 days after modeling. CONCLUSIONS: EA at the Conception Vessel promotes differentiation and proliferation of the nerve stem cells in the inferior zone of the lateral ventricle in the cerebral ischemia rats, and may stimulate differentiation of the proliferous nerve stem cells towards the astrocytes..  

Since 99% of CSF volume is water, in experiments on cats 3H-water was slowly infused into lateral ventricle and found that it does not flow to subarachnoid space but that it is rapidly absorbed transventricularly into periventricular capillaries.  

Previous studies suggest that treatment with icariin (ICA) combined with Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) improved behavior and cholinergic system disorders followed by amyloid beta-peptide(25-35) lateral ventricle injection in rats.  

Periventricular nodular heterotopia is characterized by aggregates of grey matter adjacent to the lateral ventricle and is mainly linked to mutations in the Filamin A (FLNA) gene.  

The neurogenic subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle is a potential source for neuronal replacement in the postnatal or adult neocortex after injury.  

To investigate the roles of beta-catenin in stroke-induced neurogenesis, we injected beta-catenin siRNA into ipsilateral ischemic lateral ventricle.  

Nevertheless, animals treated with L-NAME at 200 nmol into the lateral ventricle (LV), basolateral amygdala (BLA), dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) matter, lateral septal nucleus (LSN), but not in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), displayed impaired AVOID2 in comparison to the control group.  

The lateral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTL) is a component of the subpallial amygdala located near the ventral sulcus of the lateral ventricle, but its limits have not been well defined in birds.  

By contrast, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity was measured in both fourth and lateral ventricle choroid plexuses from 2-day-old rats, albeit at a lower level than in lung or kidney.  

On the 6-month surgical follow-up MRI, a nodular lesion was detected in the frontal horn of the left lateral ventricle without evidence of recurrence at the primary site.  

Neuroradiological findings showed that a solid cystic mass occupied the right lateral ventricle. Four cases of tanycytic ependymoma arising from the lateral ventricle have been reported in literature.  

The device was developed for a study designed to evaluate catheters for infection prophylaxis, and this required the implantation of silicone catheters along a reproducible trajectory through the lateral ventricle.  

After injection of human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA) into a lateral ventricle, the tracer enrichment in the olfactory turbinates 30 min postinjection provided an estimate of CSF transport through the cribriform plate into nasal lymphatics.  

Migrating neuroblasts in the adult brain form the rostral migratory stream (RMS) from the lateral ventricle to the olfactory bulb (OB) and then differentiate in the OB.  

IBA or saline were injected bilaterally into white matter between the external angle of the lateral ventricle and the forelimb sensorimotor cortex. Histological examination following testing revealed no difference in forebrain cross-sectional area but that the lateral ventricles were significantly larger in IBA treated animals than controls, especially at P7.  

A cannula was placed in the lateral ventricle of male SHR and Wistar (WKY) rats for chronic intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusions (0.5 muL/h).  

Overall, the findings suggest continuous progressive brain tissue decreases and lateral ventricle volume increases in chronically ill patients, up to at least 20 years after their first symptoms. Progressive lateral ventricle volume increases are also found.  

BoHV-4EGFPDeltaTK was injected into the lateral ventricle of the rat brain.  

A shunt tube was placed in her right lateral ventricle.  

The ideal trajectory was determined as the one that provided direct entry into the atrium or body of the lateral ventricle en route to the ipsilateral frontal horn.  

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of asymmetric lateral ventricle (ALV) with clinical and structural pathologies and assess its clinical importance.  

Radiologically, the paediatric chordoid glioma was located in the juxtaventricular region in the occipital horn of the lateral ventricle and was of mixed density whereas the adult patient had a typical third ventricle location with homogenous contrast enhancement.  

In the present study, we examined the involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the arousal response during yawning induced by electrical stimulation of the PVN in anesthetized, spontaneous breathing rats using intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of alpha-helical CRF, a CRF antagonist (4.2 microg, lateral ventricle).  

The authors report a case of inflammatory pseudotumor that developed in the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle. On computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, a well-demarcated and homogeneously contrasted tumorous lesion was noted in the region from the trigone to the medial wall of the inferior horn of the left lateral ventricle. Intraoperative findings showed that the tumor originated from the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle, and the histopathological diagnosis was inflammatory pseudotumor.  

In this report the authors present an unusual case of a CG arising within the lateral ventricle. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a cystic partially enhancing midline mass within the right lateral ventricle, expanding the ventricle and displacing the septum pellucidum.  

Implanting a microdialysis probe in the lateral ventricle of a mouse is technically very challenging. We speculate this is due to changes incorporated by the modified procedure that places the probe directly into the lateral ventricle allowing sampling of that discrete compartment.  

Ovariectomized ewes were surgically implanted with a cannula directed to the lateral ventricle.  

By injecting neuraminidase from Clostridium perfringens into the right lateral ventricle of the rat, we provoked a partial detachment of the ependyma in the striatal wall. The contralateral ventricle was never affected and was used as the experimental control.  

The present cadaveric study, describes asymmetrical right cerebral hemisphere and anomalous posterior horn of the right lateral ventricle and discusses its clinical implications. The occipital lobe of right cerebral hemisphere extended more posteriorly as compared to the left and so did the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle, resulting in the thinning of the occipital cortex. Till now, the dimension and volumetric study of the lateral ventricles have been usually performed by MRI and CT scans. The abnormal anatomy of the lateral ventricles may be of great academic interest regarding CSF circulation and also important for clinical, radiological and surgical interventions (Fig.  

Marked contrast is observed between grey and white matter when compared with lateral ventricle CSF.  

Even though no significant differences were found in ventricular/subventricular zones (VZ/SVZ) of the third ventricle (V3) and lateral ventricle (LV) between groups, we obtained interesting results: a stream-like distribution of newly proliferated cells presented along the dorsum of alveus hippocampi (Alv), extending from LV to corpus callosum (CC), and the therapeutic acupuncture showed a marked effect on this region.  

RESULTS: (1) Necrosis of lateral ventricle tissue was observed by 72 h after HI.  

An Ommaya catheter was applied to the ventricular puncture needle registered in the navigation system and was inserted into the lateral ventricle.  

Using this approach, we identified an essential role for cadherins in maintaining the integrity of the lateral ventricle wall.  

The animals, which were under general anesthesia, had duodenal and ruminal fistulas and intracerebroventriculary (i.c.v.) cannulas inserted into the lateral ventricle.  

We report a rare case of melanotic paraganglioma arising from the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle in a patient with prior Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) treated with chemotherapy and radiation..  

In this model, carcinoma cells proliferated in the choroid plexus of the right lateral ventricle and formed a nodular tumor mass, while carcinoma cells in the cerebral parenchyma multiplied along the perivascular sheath without forming a nodular mass.  

One day after right middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO), 1x10(6) cells were injected into the lateral ventricle of rats in BMSCs-treated group and the same dose of PBS was given to the rats in vehicle group.  

Regarding accurate catheter tip placement, 56.1% of the catheter tips were in the ipsilateral lateral ventricle, 7.1% were in the contralateral lateral ventricle, 8.2% were in the third ventricle, 6.1% were within the interhemispheric fissure, and 22.4% were within extraventricular spaces.  

INTERVENTION: Neuroimaging results demonstrated a lesion located in the occipital horn of the right lateral ventricle.  

We thus report a choroid plexus papilloma with neuropil-like islands located within the lateral ventricle of an 11-year-old girl.  

Intracerebroventricular infusion into the lateral ventricle of either vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid) or leptin (10 microg/h at 100 microl/h) for 24 h (0900-0900) was performed in a cross-over design with a 1-wk recovery period between treatments.  

Furthermore, to identify the location within the brain that mediates these effects, insulin was infused into either the lateral ventricle or the fourth ventricle.  

Rats with a crush in the dorsal funiculi of the C4 segment of the spinal cord were treated with chondroitinase ABC delivered to the lateral ventricle, receiving 6 intraventricular injections on alternate days. The area of chondroitinase ABC digestion visualized by stub antibody staining included widespread digestion around the lateral ventricles and partial digestion of cervical spinal cord white matter, but not grey matter..  

OBJECTS: Because the lateral ventricles of cadaver heads are often collapsed, they can be difficult to cannulate endoscopically. After removal of the brain block, the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle was exposed.  

We then retrospectively reviewed the fetal intracranial findings in each case, with special attention to the contour of the occipital horn of the lateral ventricle.  

Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was lower (P < or = 0.01) in 6-month PRL-treated normal mice than in 6-month PRL-treated dwarfs in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and in the dentate gyrus, and lower (P < or = 0.05) in 4-month untreated dwarfs than in 4-month untreated normal mice in the median eminence and the periventricular area surrounding the third ventricle.  

To detect possible ultrastructural alterations of the lateral ventricles choroid plexus (responsible for the CSF production), rats seven days after birth were submitted to an intracisternal injection of 20% kaolim (hydrated aluminum silicate) for the hydrocephalus induction.  

In a macronutrient choice scenario, WT mice ate almost three-fold more fat than GKO animals (0.63 +/- 0.02 g versus 0.23 +/- 0.01 g, P < 0.001, n = 18 versus 24).Chronic administration of galanin by mini-osmotic pumps into the lateral ventricle of GKO animals partially reversed the fat avoidance phenotype.  

Three neoplastic lesions located in the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle were diagnosed after the onset of seizures. The mechanism underlying the seizures in the 2 operated children is speculated to be a compression exerted upon the mesial temporal structures that form the medial wall of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricles; this compressive activity was resolved by removal of the tumor, and the epileptic episodes consequently disappeared in the 2 operated children; seizures were controlled by drugs in the third child..  

Twenty patients with leptomeningeal dissemination (primary disease: 10 cancers, 6 gliomas and 4 lymphomas) were given 2-7 cycles of continuous IT (CIT) with methotrexate (MTX; 10 mg) administered into the lateral ventricle for 5 consecutive days biweekly. The concentration of MTX in the lateral ventricle was 7 to 10 x 10(-6 )M from Day 1 to 4.  

To investigate the role of central interleukin-1 (IL-1) as a key signal during taste-LPS engram formation, rats were chronically infused with IL-1 receptor antagonist into the lateral ventricle of the brain before, during and after a single association trial.  

High-dose (1.5 microg/4 microl) microinjection of the selective antagonist of mGluR5, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), into the ipsilateral lateral ventricle 30 min before tetanization completely blocked the AEP potentiation without affecting the baseline AEP.  

Using SIENA, we detected expansion of the ventricular system with the largest change occurring in the left lateral ventricle (P = 0.001 corrected for multiple comparisons) but no change in total brain volume (P = 0.13).  

ASL perfusion MR imaging demonstrated an increase in ATT in the cerebral border zone regions, extending from the frontal and occipital horns of the lateral ventricle to the frontal and parietooccipital cortices, relative to ATT in non-border zone regions.  

Less reactive C57BL/6J (n=7) and high reactive BALB/cJ (n=7) male mice were implanted with a transmitter for determining sleep via telemetry and with a guide cannula aimed into a lateral ventricle.  

Thallium scans were carried out during follow-up on 14 patients in this cohort and 2 patients showed perfusion defects in anterior wall, septum and posterior wall of lateral ventricle.  

Volumes of cortical gray matter (cGM; beta = 0.41, p = 0.003), the lateral fronto-orbital gyrus (beta = 0.38, p = 0.01), superior frontal gyrus (beta = 0.29, p = 0.04), lateral ventricle (beta = -0.30, p = 0.04), and posterior limb of the internal capsule (beta = 0.43, p = 0.002) predicted MDRS I/P performance independent of WML volume.  

Adult Wistar rats were submitted to surgery for guide cannulae (lateral ventricle) and electrodes (EEG-parietal cortices and ECG-thoracic leads) implantation.  

NS-101 was administered twice through the Ommaya system placed in the lateral ventricle with an interval of 2 weeks.  

Neuroimaging data of lateral ventricle gliomas and central neurocytomas diagnosed in one institution were reviewed and compared to the corresponding literature data. Our data support those of previous studies in that MRI has been found to be superior to CT for a more precise imaging of lateral ventricle gliomas.  

Interneurons in the granule cell layer (GCL) and glomerular layer (GL) of the olfactory bulb (OB) are generated from progenitors in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle. In the present study, replication-incompetent retroviruses encoding a marker gene, human placental alkaline phosphatase (AP), were injected into the lateral ventricles of postnatal day 4 Wistar rats to label dividing cells in the SVZ.  

Infarction of the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle is a rare condition, and was not previously described in a child. We describe an infarction of the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle in a 10-year-old girl, diagnosed upon diffusion-weighted imaging. An infarction of the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle suggests an embolic or occlusive stroke of the medial posterior choroidal artery..  

We report a surgical case of intraventricular meningioma that arose in the trigone of the right lateral ventricle of a 61-year-old woman.  

CT scanning demonstrated a mass in the left occipital lobe, arising from the occipital horn of the lateral ventricle.  

The 4 groups of rats studied were as follows: SAL (n = 8), peripheral alcohol (POH) (n = 10), lateral ventricle alcohol (LVOH) (n = 12), and left ventricle alcohol (4VOH) (n = 11).  

Craniospinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed extensive intraparenchymal lesions with high T2-weighted signal intensity adjacent to the posterior left horn of lateral ventricle of the brain and the longitudinal lesion from C5 to T10 of the spinal cord.  

Imaging studies revealed a large hematoma in the right temporoparietal region and adjacent lateral ventricle.  

We examined the neuroanatomical basis of these effects with injections of N/OFQ (0.01-1.0nmol) into the lateral ventricle, the amygdala, and the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) in independent groups of well-handled rats under low stress conditions.  

The suppressive effects of activin on microglial activation were similarly observed in rat brains administered with LPS into the lateral ventricle.  

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated a hypointense cavity in the left frontal lobe communicating with the frontal horn of the left lateral ventricle, consistent with an intracerebral pneumatocele.  

No occipital lobe of the telencephalic hemisphere and no posterior horn of the lateral ventricle are present.  

No focal pathology was observed in the cortex below the impact site in the PND11 rat but by 28 days, the brain-injured PND11 rat exhibited atrophy in multiple brain regions and an enlarged lateral ventricle in the impact hemisphere.  

However, her activity become disturbed again and, after five months, only her left lateral ventricle dilated. Neuroendoscopic inspection of the right lateral ventricle via a left precoronal burrhole revealed a thick, yellish membrane that occluded the foramen of Monro.  

It is formed primarily by decussating fibers in the splenium of the corpus callosum that arch over the atrium of the lateral ventricle and course inferiorly in the lateral wall of the posterior, and somewhat into the temporal horns, of the lateral ventricle.  

MRI was suspicious for arteriovenous malformation and the dorsal horn of the right lateral ventricle was enlarged.  

METHODS: Rats with stainless steel cannulae implanted into their lateral ventricle were studied. We injected the AT1 and AT2 angiotensin II receptor antagonists, losartan and PD123319, L-NAME, 7-nitroindazole (nitric oxide synthetase inhibitors), and FK409 (nitric oxide donor agent) into the lateral ventricles. Angiotensin II injected into the brain lateral ventricle increased MAP from 136.5 +/- 2 mm Hg to 138.5 +/- 4 mm Hg (Delta16 +/- 3 mm Hg to Delta21 +/- 3 mm Hg) for all experimental groups versus control from 116 +/- 2 mm Hg to 120 +/- 3 mm Hg (Delta3 +/- 1 mm Hg to Delta5 +/- 2 mm Hg) (P < 0.05).  

To understand the morphogenetic dynamics of the inner surface of the embryonic pallial (neocortical) wall, we immunohistochemically surveyed the cellular endfeet facing the lateral ventricle and found that the average endfoot area was minimal at embryonic day (E)12 in mice.  

OBJECTIVE: Intraventricular virtual MR endoscopic imaging of the foramen of Monro region by using three-dimensional Fourier transformation constructive interference in steady state (3DFT-CISS) magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with a unilateral congenital obstruction of the foramen of Monro by a transparent membranous septum was performed to enhance the orientation, achieve a better understanding of the pathology, and plan the surgical intervention in an endoscopic approach to the lateral ventricles. METHODS: 3DFT-CISS sequences and virtual MR endoscopic imaging were performed in a patient before and after endoscopic fenestration procedures, to communicate the lateral ventricle to the third ventricle for the treatment of unilateral ventricular enlargement.  

Tissue structures such as left and right lateral ventricle have achieved over 70% DSI, while other structures such as third ventricle, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus have achieved above 60% DSI..  

Western blot analysis revealed a robust ECS-induced increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the wall of the lateral ventricle including the ependymal cell layer and the SVZ, which may provide a possible regulatory mechanism for GPR56 expression.  

Day 1 consisted of an 8-h lateral ventricle infusion of estradiol (1 mug/mul; n = 9), progesterone (1 mug/mul; n = 9), or saline (0.2 mul/min; n = 10).  

Chickens were fitted with a stainless steel cannula surgically implanted in the lateral ventricle and a catheter chronically inserted in the jugular vein.  

RESULTS: Initial Glasgow Coma Scale score < 9 (P = 0.033), abundant blood in the lateral ventricle (P = 0.016), ICP elevations > 25 mmHg (P = 0.016), persistent ICP elevations > 20 mmHg (P = 0.017), and thalamic IPH location (P = 0.009) were associated with VPS on univariate analysis. CONCLUSION: A predictive shunting instrument utilizing GCS score, lateral ventricle blood, ICP measurement, and the presence of hydrocephalus may predict those patients at risk for VPS or identify those patients requiring additional CSF drainage strategies..  

Multi-barreled micropipettes were used for microinjection of L-NAME or normal saline into the lateral ventricle or amygdala. Microinjection of L-NAME (0.5 mol/L,10 microl) into the lateral ventricle of brain attenuated the inhibitory effect of DPN.  

Slight enlargement could be seen in lateral ventricle (n = 1) or lateral ventricle with third ventricle (n = 1).  

The speed and origin of venous insufficiency influences the morphology of individual cases particularly with regard to lateral ventricle size.  

A right frontal external ventricular drain was placed in the patient, resulting in decompression of only the right lateral ventricle. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated a lobulated cyst arising from the choroid plexus of the left lateral ventricle and herniating through the foramen of Monro into the third ventricle, occluding both the foramen of Monro and the cerebral aqueduct.  

Alternatively, we inoculated the vector into the lateral ventricle (LV), with or without prior intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of mannitol.  

A postnatal head ultrasound showed a large right intracerebral mass with right lateral ventricle compression, right temporal horn dilation, and right frontal horn enlargement with lateral displacement.  

METHODS: From September 2004 to September 2005, 7 patients underwent endoscopic evacuation of posterial-lateral type thalamic hemorrhage that had ruptured into the lateral ventricle of the trigum and caused acute hydrocephalus. CONCLUSION: Use of a rigid endoscopic sheath in combination with an endoscope and an approach from Keen's point to the collateral trigone of the lateral ventricle improves the efficiency of evacuating thalamic hematomas and prevents shunt-dependent hydrocephalus..  

Urocortin infusion into neighboring sites (lateral ventricle, medial caudate) had no effects.  

At 14 and 28 days post-injury, the cortex, white matter, and hippocampus were substantially atrophied, and the lateral ventricle was enlarged.  

The FGF-2 or vehicle was infused into the posterior lateral ventricle of middle-aged Fischer (F)344 rats for 2 weeks using osmotic minipumps.  

In addition, there was what was thought to be an asymptomatic cystic lesion in the left frontal lobe communicating with the lateral ventricle.  

Messenger RNAs for Flt-1 and Flk-1 appeared along most of the ventricular zone of the lateral ventricle as early as embryonic day (E) 13.  

2) In the dorsal SVZ, neuroblasts migrated rostrocaudally as expected, but migration shifted to dorsoventral orientations throughout ventral regions of the lateral ventricle.  

Radiologic investigations revealed a 5-cm-long metallic sewing needle extending from the right frontal cortex to the right lateral ventricle.  

In 6 patients with an opened passage between posterior fossa cyst and lateral ventricle, cystoperitoneal shunt system with medium pressure valve was the treatment of choice.  

Furthermore, a decrease of NPCs in the lateral ventricle at the disease progression stage was observed, whereas no difference in the number of NPCs in the hippocampus was detected at the disease onset and progression stages.  

Loss of oligophrenin1 (OPHN1) function in human causes X-linked mental retardation associated with cerebellar hypoplasia and, in some cases, with lateral ventricle enlargement.  

RESULTS: Compared with healthy control subjects, patients showed a bilateral decrease in hippocampal and cortical gray matter volume and increases in bilateral dorsal striatum and right lateral ventricle.  

Brain computed tomography showed hemorrhage in the right thalamus and the lateral ventricle.  

We report such a tumor in the right lateral ventricle of a 16-year-old young man.  

Galectin-1 (Gal-1) has recently been identified as a key molecule that plays important roles in the regulation of neural progenitor cell proliferation in two neurogenic regions: the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Administration of Gal-1, which is known to have carbohydrate-binding ability, into the lateral ventricle increased neurogenesis in the ipsilateral SVZ and improved sensorimotor dysfunction after focal ischemia.  

RESULTS: COMT(L) carriers showed a significant enlargement of the lateral ventricles (F = 7.13, p = 0.009), right lateral ventricle (F = 5.99, p = 0.017) and left lateral ventricle (F = 6.22, p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that genetic variations of COMT can contribute to the enlargement of the lateral ventricles described in early phases of non-affective psychosis..  

Inspection of the right lateral ventricle with a fiberscope revealed occlusion of the septum pellucidum fenestration; on observation, the right Monro foramen was covered by thick, tough granulation tissue and the left was occluded by thin membranous tissue. A stent was then introduced into the third ventricle via the right lateral ventricle, the fenestration in the septum pellucidum, and the left Monro foramen.  

In most of its course, it remains parallel to the corpus callosum, the caudate nucleus and the lateral ventricle.  

After injection of a contrast agent into the cerebrospinal space, radiographs demonstrated an asymmetry of the right lateral ventricle.  

The authors report the case of a nine-year-old boy admitted with raised intracranial pressure in relation with a tumour of the right lateral ventricle.  

In addition, serotonin expanded the size of the NSC pool in the SVZ when it was infused into the lateral ventricle in vivo.  

METHODS: We anesthetized rats and perfused the brain with ethanol solutions through the lateral ventricle and collected the perfusate from the Cisterna magna.  

In experiment 1, plasmids expressing Hemaglutinin-tagged polypeptides with 20 glutamine repeats (Q20) or with extended 127-glutamine repeats (Q127) were complexed with ORMOSIL nanoparticles and injected twice (2 weeks apart) into the lateral ventricle of the mouse brain. In experiment 2, plasmids Q20 or Q127 were complexed with ORMOSIL and were injected into the brain lateral ventricle or directly into the striatum of adult rats. An increase in the size of the lateral ventricle was also observed in rats receiving Q127.  

T(1) relaxation times were determined for cortex, corpus callosum, caudate putamen, hippocampus, periaqueductal gray, lateral ventricle, and cerebellum and varied from 1651 +/- 28 to 2449 +/- 150 ms at 9.4 T and 1824 +/- 101 to 2772 +/- 235 ms at 17.6 T.  

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