Paleostriatum Primitivum

The paleostriatum primitivum was recognized as homologous to the mammalian globus pallidus and renamed as such. The posterior part of the archistriatum has been renamed the posterior pallial amygdala, the nucleus taeniae recognized as part of the avian amygdala, and a region inferior to the posterior paleostriatum primitivum included as a subpallial part of the avian amygdala.  

An analysis of the relevant literature shows that the mammalian entopeduncular nucleus/avian paleostriatum primitivum/reptilian globus pallidus clearly are part of the basal ganglia (i.e., the pallidum).  

The highest binding values were found in the olfactory bulb, paleostriatum primitivum, optic tectum, nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis and nucleus isthmi pars parvocellularis, the BZ2 subtype being predominant in the paleostriatum primitivum and optic tectum.  

The basal part of the avian telencephalon can be divided into the paleostriatum augmentatum, paleostriatum primitivum and lobus parolfactorius (LPO).  

Exclusive striatonigral afferents arise from the paleostriatum augmentatum and paleostriatum primitivum.  

Fibers immunoreactive for TH (TH-ir) were particularly abundant in the lobus parolfactorius, the paleostriatum primitivum, and the nucleus septalis lateralis.  

The paleostriatum primitivum also received a few fibres.  

In addition, an increase in the deoxyglucose incorporation was specifically observed in the paleostriatum primitivum, rostral preoptic area, nucleus intercollicularis, nucleus interpeduncularis and third nerve but a decrease was observed in the dorsomedial part of the hippocampus and in the nucleus nervi oculomotori in birds of the consummatory sexual behavior group by comparison with controls.  

Galanin-immunoreactive fibres were found mainly in the paleostriatum primitivum , the medial part of the parolfactory lobe (LPO) and the lateral septal nucleus; galanin may interfere with acetylcholine activity.  

By comparing our results of Metenkephalin immunoreactivity (Menkir) with the referred analogous ones of Substance P (SP) quoted in literature, we confirmed the strikingly similar labelling at the levels of the Lobus paraolfactorius (LPO) and Paleostriatum augmentatum (PA), in contrast with the very low immunoreactivity at the paleostriatum primitivum (PP) levels.  

Despite these similarities, the budgerigar dorsal striatopallidum (lobus parolfactorius, paleostriatum augmentatum, and paleostriatum primitivum) and somatomotor (anterior) archistriatum exhibit unique patterns of ELI.  

In particular, DARPP-32 was highly abundant in the avian basal ganglia, where a high percentage of neurons were labelled in the "striatal" parts (paleostriatum augmentatum, lobus parolfactorius), while only neuropil staining was observed in the "pallidal" portions (paleostriatum primitivum).  

With this aim, we reinvestigated the projections of the pigeon dorsal pallidum to the dorsal thalamus by using 1) injections of the anterogradely transported form of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA; 10,000 molecular weight) in the pigeon dorsal pallidum (paleostriatum primitivum) and 2) injections of the retrogradely transported form of BDA (3,000 molecular weight) in the pigeon dorsal thalamus.  

We also demonstrate that while the beta 2S- and beta 2L-subunit messenger RNAs frequently co-localize in many brain areas, certain structures (e.g., the ectostriatum, the hippocampus, the nucleus solitarius, the nucleus isthmi, pars parvocellularis, the nucleus isthmi, pars magnocellularis, the paleostriatum primitivum, the Purkinje cell layer, and the deep cerebellar nuclei) exclusively or predominantly contain either the beta 2S- or the beta 2L-subunit transcript.  

A significant increase in binding of 75% was observed in the paleostriatum primitivum (a homologue of the mammalian globus pallidus) with the R treatment compared to the 2R and AL treatments.  

High levels of specific binding of the D1 and D2 ligands were found in the striatal regions (paleostriatum augmentatum and lobus parolfactorius) of the one-day-old chick, as reported previously in the pigeon, turtle and rat, whilst binding levels were considerably lower in the pallidum (paleostriatum primitivum), hippocampus and hyperstriatum ventrale.  

These were the nucleus tuberis, nucleus preopticus medialis, nucleus ovoidalis and paleostriatum primitivum. The uptake of 2DG was increased at the onset of incubation in the nucleus tuberis, nucleus preopticus medialis and nucleus ovoidalis and decrease in the paleostriatum primitivum.  

Similar levels of binding outlined the paleostriatum primitivum, the nucleus pretecalis and the nucleus intercollicularis.  

The paleostriatum primitivum was characterized by a dichotomous DA-positive innervation with a diffuse fiber network contacting enpassant granular cells and a more specific input that completely wrapped up large cells, which probably represent relay neurons.  

There were fewer stained cells in the septum and the least cellular staining was in the paleostriatum primitivum.  

Additional degeneration was noted in the paleostriatum primitivum, dorso-intermediate posterior thalamic nucleus, lateral spiriform nucleus, and the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, all of which are related to visuomotor control.  

Specific labeling densities were associated with avian equivalents of the mammalian pyramidal system (hyperstriatum accessorium; archistriatum intermedium and tractus occipitomesencephalicus) and extrapyramidal system (paleostriatum augmentatum, paleostriatum primitivum and lobus parolfactorius), as well as several limbic structures (hippocampal formation, nucleus taeniae and the caudal part of the archistriatum).  

Neuronal damage, determined qualitatively using a silver impregnation method, was observed in several forebrain regions including the hippocampus, hyperstriatal regions, paleostriatum primitivum, ventral archistriatum, and lateral corticoid area.  

These differences occurred in brain sites such as the area preoptica, paleostriatum primitivum, and nucleus ectomamillaris.  

In fact, high and low binding levels were obtained in the suprachiasmatic area and nucleus ectomamillaris (p < 0.01) and in the nucleus preopticus anterior and paleostriatum primitivum (p < 0.001), respectively.  

In the telencephalon, the nuclei basalis, accumbens, ectostriatum, paleostriatum primitivum, and the ventral paleostriatum are particularly rich in GFAP-positive cells, whereas the neostriatum, hyperstriatum, and paleostriatum augmentatum are almost devoid of GFAP labelling.  

The chicken lateral spiriform nucleus (Spl) receives its major input from the paleostriatum primitivum of the forebrain, projects almost exclusively upon the optic tectum, but receives no projections from the tectum.  

While the two transcripts are found to be colocalized throughout the chick neuroaxis, certain nuclei (for example, the nucleus isthmi, pars magnocellularis, the nucleus isthmi, pars parvocellularis, the nucleus solitarius and the paleostriatum primitivum) are found to contain predominantly either the gamma2S- or the gamma2L-subunit mRNA.  

Very low to background levels of VIP binding were detected in the ectostriatum, paleostriatum primitivum, paleostriatum augmentatum, lobus parolfactorius, nucleus accumbens, most of the brainstem, and the cerebellum.  

On the other hand, the paleostriatum primitivum, the avian homologue of the mammalian globus pallidus, contained very few binding sites.  

In contrast, the paleostriatum primitivum, corresponding to the mammalian globus pallidus, was poor in muscarinic cholinergic receptors.  

Intermediate densities were found in the forebrain, particularly the paleostriatum primitivum, the nucleus rotundus and the cerebellum. The paleostriatum primitivum and cerebellum were enriched in receptors of the BZ type I, as indicated by their high affinity for compound CL 218872.  

Thus, for example, dopamine and muscarinic receptors, but not serotonin-1A, are enriched in the paleostriatum augmentatum while GABA/benzodiazepine receptors are enriched in the paleostriatum primitivum corresponding with their localization to the caudate-putamen and globus pallidus respectively.  

However, in the avian brain, neuronal cells in certain regions such as the paleostriatum primitivum and the cerebellum, as well as other non-neuronal cells, exhibited S-100 protein immunoreactivity.  

The lowest levels of NT binding sites in the telencephalon were observed within the paleostriatum primitivum (PP, considered comparable to mammalian globus pallidus), ectostriatum (comparable to layer IV of mammalian extrastriate visual cortex), field "L" (comparable to layer IV of mammalian auditory cortex), hippocampus, septum, and preoptic area.  

The large-celled portions of the paleostriatum including the paleostriatum primitivum and nucleus intrapeduncularis do not appear to receive projections from either AVT or TPc neurons.  

The enkephalinergic neurons of LPO-PA appeared to give rise to a dense plexus of enkephalinergic fibers within the large-celled zone of the paleostriatal complex, the paleostriatum primitivum (PP).  

Two weeks later, about one day prior to hatching, morphology of large neurons in the paleostriatum primitivum was evaluated. In addition, the nuclear size of the paleostriatum primitivum neurons was reduced in the CO-exposed chicks.  

The SpL was found to receive clear-cut major inputs from only three nuclei: (1) the ipsilateral paleostriatum primitivum (PP) of the basal ganglia (the avian homologue of the mammalian globus pallidus), (2) the ipsilateral anterior nucleus of the ansa lenticularis (ALa) of the diencephalon, and (3) the ipsilateral nucleus tegmentipedunculopontinus (TPc) of the mesencephalon.  

Each telencephalic structure (based on terminology used by Karten and Hodos, '67) was characterized by a specific range of birthdates: some regions such as the core of the ectostriatum or the paleostriatum primitivum, were generated within a single day, while others, such as the hyperstriatum accessorium, required up to five days for generation of the complete population.  

The nuclear volume of large, multipolar neurons in the chick paleostriatum primitivum and the rat lateral preoptic area are reduced from 10 to 15%.  

The crossed field included the paleostriatum primitivum and the caudal portion of the lobus parolfactorius, areas which were reached through the anterior commissure.  

The brains of the swift Streptoprocne zonaris, the flycatcher Tyrannus melancholicus, the tanager Ramphocelus dimidiatus and the finch Oryzoborus angolensis were compared with respect to the hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum dorsale, hyperstriatum ventrale, neostriatum, ectostriatum, paleostriatum augmentatum and paleostriatum primitivum.  

the paleostriatum primitivum (PP), comparable to globus pallidus, receives projections from the small cells of PA, and from neutrons in the anterior nucleus of the ansa lenticularis (ALa).  

Mechanical-sounding contact-type calls were elicited from sites in the central neostriatum caudale and paleostriatum primitivum.  

The hyperstriatum, the neostriatum, and paleostriatum augmentatum and the paleostriatum primitivum constitute the central region.  

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