The dorsal striatum plays a role in consummatory food reward, and striatal dopamine receptors are reduced in obese individuals, relative to lean individuals, which suggests that the striatum and dopaminergic signaling in the striatum may contribute to the development of obesity. Thus, we tested whether striatal activation in response to food intake is related to current and future increases in body mass and whether these relations are moderated by the presence of the A1 allele of the TaqIA restriction fragment length polymorphism, which is associated with dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene binding in the striatum and compromised striatal dopamine signaling. Cross-sectional and prospective data from two functional magnetic resonance imaging studies support these hypotheses, which implies that individuals may overeat to compensate for a hypofunctioning dorsal striatum, particularly those with genetic polymorphisms thought to attenuate dopamine signaling in this region..  

In order to relate possible behavioral deficits to neurobiological changes, we examined H1R-KO and wild-type (WT) mice in terms of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity in subregions of the hippocampus and AChE and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the striatum.  

The remember behavior of animals was tested and the contents of SS and AVP in various encephalic region (frontal cortex, temporal lobe, hippocampusìcerebral ganglion and corpora striatum) were determined with radioimmunoassay. RESULT: During the 15-day-long remembering testìthe frequency of making mistakes in the VDMG was higher remarkably than that in SOG and CG (P<0.05); and the relative contents of SS were decreased in frontal area cortex, temporal lobeìhippocampusìcerebral ganglion and corpora striatum(P<0.01)ìwhile decrease of AVP contents was only detected in temporal lobe and corpora striatum (P<0.05).  

Brain radioactivity uptake was highest in striatum and cerebellum, and it reached 170-270% standardized uptake value (SUV) at 120 min after injection of [ (11)C]3 and 180% SUV at 240 min after injection of [ (18)F]3.  

To test this, adult C57BL/6J and DBA/2J prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, ventral striatum, and midbrain fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. After correction for multiple comparisons, C57BL/6J mice exhibited significantly lower DHA composition in the hippocampus and ventral striatum, but not prefrontal cortex or midbrain, and significantly greater regional arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6):DHA ratios, relative to DBA/2J mice. C57BL/6J mice exhibited significantly smaller oleic acid:stearic acid ratio in the hippocampus and ventral striatum relative to DBA/2J mice.  

This study provides evidence that a 3'UTR PDYN haplotype, implicated in vulnerability to develop cocaine addiction and/or cocaine/alcohol codependence, is related to lower mRNA expression of the PDYN gene in human dorsal and ventral striatum.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 15 October 2008; doi:10.1038/npp.2008.187..  

This protein tyrosine phosphatase is enriched in the synapses of the striatum, hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and other brain regions.  

We used in vitro and in vivo biochemical techniques to dissect the roles of PDE4 and PDE10A in dopaminergic neurotransmission in mouse striatum by monitoring the ability of selective PDE inhibitors to regulate phosphorylation of presynaptic [ e.g., tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)] and postsynaptic [ e.g., dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of M(r) 32 kDa (DARPP-32)] PKA substrates. The PDE4 inhibitor, rolipram, induced a large increase in TH Ser40 phosphorylation at dopaminergic terminals that was associated with a commensurate increase in dopamine synthesis and turnover in striatum in vivo. Rolipram induced a small increase in DARPP-32 Thr34 phosphorylation preferentially in striatopallidal neurons by activating adenosine A(2A) receptor signaling in striatum. These biochemical results are supported by immunohistochemical data demonstrating differential localization of PDE10A and PDE4 in striatum.  

Current brain imaging studies indicate that dysfunction of dopaminergic, glutamatergic and opioidergic neurotransmission in the brain reward system (ventral striatum including the nucleus accumbens) can be associated with alcohol craving and functional brain activation in neuronal systems that process attentional relevant stimuli, reward expectancy and experience.  

Quantification of MDR1 mRNA in human striatum has revealed reduced levels in Parkinson patients compared with control individuals.  

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of selenium on restraint stress-induced oxidative damage in hippocampus, striatum and frontal cortex. selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase were evaluated in the frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Selenium pre-treatment exhibited restoration of antioxidant enzymes activity, GSH content and decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation in hippocampus, striatum and frontal cortex in both 1 h and 4 h restraint stress groups. Selenium per se had no effect on GSH, lipid peroxidation level or activities of antioxidant enzymes in hippocampus, striatum and frontal cortex. In conclusion, selenium pre-treatment protected the brain against restraint stress-induced oxidative damage at 4 h in hippocampus, striatum and frontal cortex..  

The experiments were performed in primary cultures of mouse striatal neurons and in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of minocycline-treated mice.  

We tested whether parental alcoholism, which confers risk of SD, is correlated with altered recruitment of ventral striatum (VS) by non-drug rewards in adolescence.  

After testing CPP, mice were sacrificed and phosphorylated ERK and CREB in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum were examined by immunohistochemistry. Pretreatment with DRz164 significant attenuated the morphine-induced activation of ERK and CREB in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum.  

We tested an ANN model in the discrimination of schizophrenic patients from normal controls using [ 18F] DOPA rate constants within the anterior-posterior subdivisions of the striatum, and compared the model with a general linear analysis of the same data.  

Repeated treatment with amphetamine produced HDACi-like effects: enhanced global histone H4 acetylation level by Western blot as well as specific histone H4 acetylation associated with FosB promoter by chromatin immunoprecipitation in the striatum. Conversely, repeated treatment with BA or VPA produced amphetamine-like effects: enhanced cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation at Ser(133) position and increased DeltaFosB protein levels in the striatum. Furthermore, co-administration of BA or VPA with amphetamine produced additive effects on histone H4 acetylation as well as CREB phosphorylation in the striatum. The interplay of HDAC and CREB was also supported by co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrating that repeated treatment with VPA reduced the association of CREB and HDAC1 in the striatum. Thus, HDACi may interact additively with psychostimulants at both histone acetylation and CREB phosphorylation through the CREB:HDAC protein complex in the striatum to modulate DeltaFosB protein levels and psychomotor behavioral sensitization..  

In contrast to a general view about the lack of physiological role of monoamine metabolites, these results for the first time strongly suggest that an extraneuronal metabolite of dopamine, 3-MT plays an important physiological role as an inhibitory regulator counteracting excessive stimulation of catecholaminergic neurons in the striatum..  

These animals also showed a reduction in GABA(B) receptor binding in the prefrontal and frontal cortices, septum and dorsal striatum.  

The radioligand binding assay (RLBA) and Scatchard drawing were used to measure the maximal binding capacity of receptor (Bmax) and equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of the dopamine D2 receptor in corpora striatum.  

Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant slowly degenerative apoptotic condition in CNS, in particular in striatum.  

Here we have used mutant mice to test whether Rhes (Ras homolog enriched in striatum) is involved in D1 and D2 dopamine receptor-mediated behaviors.  

There is considerable evidence that the striatum is part of a larger neural network that supports flexible adaptations. Acetylcholine efflux selectively increased in the dorsomedial striatum, but not dorsolateral or ventromedial striatum during place reversal learning. In order to modulate the M2-class of autoreceptors, administration of oxotremorine sesquifumurate (100nM) into the dorsomedial striatum, concomitantly impaired reversal learning and an increase in acetylcholine output. In contrast to reversal learning, acetylcholine efflux in the dorsomedial striatum did not change during place acquisition. The results reveal an essential role for cholinergic activity and define its locus of control to the dorsomedial striatum in cognitive flexibility..  

Inhibitory responses of rat nigral dopaminergic neurons by stimulation of afferents from striatum, globus pallidus, or pars reticulata have been shown to be mediated predominantly or exclusively by GABA(A) receptors.  

We investigated the level of dopamine in the striatum of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated male Swiss albino mice (40 mg/kg), after 7 days, we measured the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants, the reduced glutothione (GSH), enzymatic anti-oxidants such as superoxide dismulase (SOD), cataloes (CAT) and also observed the histopathology of the mesencephalic areas after MPTP treatment by transmission electron microscopy (EM).  

Although the role of the striatum in language processing is still largely unclear, a number of recent proposals have outlined its specific contribution. Different studies report evidence converging to a picture where the striatum may be involved in those aspects of rule-application requiring non-automatized behaviour. Thus, we hypothesized that the striatum should play a prominent role in the extraction of rules in learning a language. We studied 13 pre-symptomatic gene-carriers and 22 early stage patients of Huntington's disease (pre-HD), both characterized by a progressive degeneration of the striatum and 21 late stage patients Huntington's disease (18 stage II, two stage III and one stage IV) where cortical degeneration accompanies striatal degeneration.  

BACKGROUND: We investigated the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) for treatment refractory depression.  

In a subchronic neurotoxicity study using mice, a mixture of phenols, cresols, and xylenols at concentrations approximately equal to those expected in Coal Tar extracts produced regionally selective effects, with a rank order of corpus striatum > cerebellum > cerebral cortex.  

Furthermore, pups receiving the expected reward of maternal contact had higher numbers of c-Fos immunopositive cells in the dorsal striatum compared to either naïve or pups denied the expected reward.  

In this study we investigated the CoQ(10) status of the substantia nigra, cerebellum, cortex and striatum brain regions of both PD patients and age-matched controls.  

Independent groups of animals received the same treatment, but were submitted to the catalepsy test and had their brain removed to measure nitrite and nitrate (NOx) concentrations in the striatum. Animals that received repeated l-NOARG injections also showed an increase in the number of nNOS-positive neurons in the striatum. No change in D2 receptor mRNA expression was found in the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens and substantia nigra. They may depend, however, on plastic changes in nNOS neurons resulting in partial recovery of NO formation in the striatum..  

We studied gene expression in the striatum of healthy rats, which was divided into two sectors, medial and lateral. DYN and GAD mRNA expression was higher on the left hemisphere in the medial sector of the striatum, but not in the lateral one. We suggest the presence of a lateralization in the medial striatum, which is specific for the direct striatal pathway..  

DAT binding potentials (BP) were assessed in the hippocampus, amygdala, ventral and dorsal striatum. We found that correlation coefficients between total UPSIT scores and regional brain DAT BP were highest for the hippocampus (Rs=0.54, P=0.002) and lower for the amygdala (Rs=0.44, P=0.02), ventral (Rs=0.48, P=0.008) and dorsal striatum (Rs=0.39, P=0.03).  

The amygdala, striatum, and structures within the prefrontal cortex are highly involved in mediating these stages of emotion processing, and evidence indicates that these regions show structural and functional alterations in different types of psychopathology, including anxiety, depression, and autism spectrum disorders.  

The network involved in pro-saccade generation (by definition largely exogenously-driven) includes subcortical (striatum, thalamus, superior colliculus, and cerebellar vermis) and cortical (primary visual, extrastriate, and parietal cortices, and frontal and supplementary eye fields) structures.  

Measurements of [ (3)H]cytisine binding (selective for alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor subtype) revealed a reduction in these receptors only in the striatum of FH rats, a result very similar to that observed in selectively-bred alcohol-preferring (P) rats.  

In previous works we have used this technique to study the effects of the drug anatoxin-a, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, on dopamine release in striatum.  

RESULTS: This study examined the effect of chronic administration of pseudoephedrine in rat nucleus accumbens and striatum and identified three further similarities to amphetamine.  

supranuclear, lesion in the striatum or rostral brainstem releasing medullary activation with denervation hypersensitivity of olivary neurones..  

Moreover, only Lmx1a-specified hNPs have the potential to differentiate into bona fide midbrain mDA neurons after transplantation into the 6-hydroxydopamine treated rat striatum.  

The receipt of monetary reward revealed activation in the striatum and associated frontoparietal regions.  

As compared with control values, SERT protein levels were markedly (-48% to -58%) reduced in striatum (caudate, putamen) and occipital cortex and less affected (-25%) in frontal and temporal cortices, whereas TPH protein was severely decreased in caudate and putamen (-68% and -95%, respectively).  

Likewise, endogenous agmatine levels measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and hypothalamus were significantly increased by immobilization, as compared to controls.  

By immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses, GLT1 and GLAST proteins were significantly reduced in the striatum with lesion. The reduction of GLT1 protein in the striatum was more prominent than that of GLAST protein ( approximately 40% vs. In addition, EAAC1 protein was found to be increased in the substantia nigra pars reticulata of the lesioned rats but not in the striatum. The present results indicate that reductions of GLT1 and GLAST may impair glutamate homeostasis around glutamatergic synapses in the striatum and contribute to over-spills of glutamate in the system.  

Further, increases in 5-HT levels in dorsal hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and striatum were likewise potentiated, and GR205171 similarly facilitated the influence of fluoxetine upon levels of 5-HT, as well as dopamine and noradrenaline.  

Significantly, reduced Cdk5 expression together with enhanced Cdk5 phosphorylation and p25 accumulation also occurs in the striatum of mutant Hdh(Q111) mice and HD human brain suggesting the relevance of deregulated Cdk5 pathway in HD pathology.  

Even when multiple FSIs were recorded simultaneously from the same local region of striatum, firing rate changes were dissimilar, and no clear evidence for synchronous firing was found using cross-correlograms (18 FSI pairs examined).  

The involvement of matricial MSPNs and cholinergic transmission within the striatum implies a relation between uncertainty in cue-reward contingencies and action-selection functions of the basal ganglia..  

These two isoforms differentially contribute to dopamine signalling in prefrontal cortex and in striatum. Moreover, the promoter variant is also associated with working memory activity in prefrontal cortex and striatum of patients, and less robustly with negative symptoms scores.  

Microarray studies revealed that HDACi 4b treatment ameliorated, in part, alterations in gene expression caused by the presence of mutant huntingtin protein in the striatum, cortex, and cerebellum of R6/2(300Q) transgenic mice.  

Human imaging studies identified similarly distinct risk signals for monetary rewards in the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), thus fulfilling a requirement for the mean variance approach of economic decision theory.  

In this paper, we review the role of the striatum and amygdala in affective learning and the coding of aversive prediction errors (PEs). We present neuroimaging results showing aversive PE-related signals in the striatum in fear conditioning paradigms with both primary (shock) and secondary (monetary loss) reinforcers. These results and others point to the general role for the striatum in coding PEs across a broad range of learning paradigms and reinforcer types..  

The levels of NO in hippocampus and striatum tissues were assessed by spectrophotometric method. The levels of DA in hippocampus and striatum tissues were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The results showed that the cognitive capability of mice was significantly different between the DHA-treated groups and the control group; the protein level of BDNF was significantly increased in the hippocampus; the levels of NO and DA were significantly increased in hippocampus and striatum tissues. In conclusion, during aging, DHA supplementation can improve the cognitive function in mice and can increase the protein level of BDNF in hippocampus tissue and the levels of NO and DA in hippocampus and striatum tissues.  

After administration of Mn (intraperitoneal injections of 20 or 40 mg/kg MnCl(2).4H(2)O once per day for 5 d), motor activity and expression of TH and DR were examined in the striatum of the mouse brain. The expression of dopamine D2-like receptor D2 (DRD2), but not TH, DRD3, or DRD4, in the striatum was dose-dependent, and statistically significant increases were seen at the mRNA and protein levels. These findings indicate that Mn-induced motor deficits may be modulated in part by the expression of DRD2 in the striatum.  

OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to analyse the evolution of the ultrastructural alterations of the ipsilateral and contralateral striata of the 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats to demonstrate that the contralateral striatum should not be used as control structure. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the contralateral striatum should not be taken as control structure at least after 20-30 days after lesioning, as the alterations found here may result in wrong interpretations when comparing with the ipsilateral-lesioned one..  

Some modern biological theories of "individuality" and recent animal studies of neuronal activity of the frontal cortex and striatum depending on validity and delay of reinforcement are analyzed..  

It seems that a deficiency of GABAergic interneurons, found by previous immunohistochemical examinations, does not lead to reduced extracellular GABA levels in the striatum..  

In animal models of PD, GDNF delivery to the striatum or the substantia nigra protects dopaminergic neurons against subsequent toxin-induced injury and rescues damaged neurons, promoting recovery of the motor function.  

Key components of this network are medial agranular and posterior parietal cortex, dorsocentral striatum, and the lateral posterior thalamic nucleus. Among these are the roles of medial versus lateral posterior parietal cortex; cholinergic mechanisms in attention; interhemispheric interactions; the role of synchronous firing at the cortical, striatal, and thalamic levels; interactions between cortical and thalamic projections to the striatum; interactions between cortical and nigral inputs to the thalamus; the role of collicular inputs to the lateral posterior thalamic nucleus; the role of cerebral cortex versus superior colliculus in driving the motor output expressed as orienting behavior during directed attention; the extent to which the circuitry we describe for directed attention also plays a role in other forms of attention..  

This modular conception of the striatum is consistent with hierarchical models of cortico-striatal function through which adaptive behaviour towards significant goals can be identified (motivation; ventral striatum), planned (cognition; caudate) and implemented (sensorimotor coordination; putamen) effectively..  

The reciprocal connections between the globus pallidus (GP) and other basal ganglia (BG) nuclei indicate that the GP plays a significant role in controlling the neuronal activity of the entire BG; in turn, the activity of GP neurons is controlled by several major inputs that involve the striatum. Both chemical and electrical stimulation of the striatum caused a significant GP spike rate reduction; however, chemical stimulation of the striatum produced a complete firing arrest on most GP neurons, something not seen with electrical stimulation. In addition, chemical stimulation of the striatum with NMDA evoked a significant long-lasting post-inhibitory spike rate increase, an effect that was not seen under glutamate infusion or electrical stimulation. Our results suggest a differential effect of electrical or chemical stimulation of the striatum on the spiking activity of GP neurons, which involves the activation of intrapallidal AMPA/kainate receptors and striatal en passant fibers..  

the globus pallidus (GP) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) following 6-OHDA lesion of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) or the striatum. MFB injections caused astrocytic activation in the ipsi- and contralateral striatum, whereas striatal injections resulted in astrocytic activation in the GP and STN. Since 6-OHDA injections into the MFB and the striatum result in complete and partial SNc lesions, respectively, we hypothesize that communication links exist between astrocytes, or between neurons and astrocytes, along neuronal pathways that transmit activating signals in response to neuronal damage-but only if the neuronal pathways are at least partially intact..  

In order to characterize the contribution of the striatum to these effects, rats with medial forebrain bundle DA lesions were tested for abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) and rotations following striatal microinfusions of the 5-HT(1A)R agonist +/-8-OH-DPAT and systemic D1R agonist treatment with SKF81297. Collectively, these results support an important functional interaction between 5-HT(1A)R and D1R in the striatum with implications for the improved treatment of Parkinson's disease..  

The cerebral blood flow and the vascular density in the ischemic striatum on day 28 after MCAo had significantly improved in ECs-, MCs- and ECs+MCs-transplanted mice compared to that of mice injected with saline or transplanted with hMNCs.  

This decrease appears 1 day after injection, remains stable for at least 30 days, and is accompanied by a dose-dependent long-lasting decrease in TH- and DAT-immunoreactivity in the striatum, which peaked 1 day after treatment and persisted for at least 30 days, however, some recovery was evident from day 3 onwards, evidencing sprouting of TH fibers. The expression of Mac-1 increased 1 day after MDMA treatment and GFAP increased 3 days post-treatment in the striatum and SN but not in the NAc, in strict anatomical correlation with dopaminergic damage.  

Robust neural responses to statistical structure were observed, and these responses were notable in four ways: First, responses to structure were observed in the striatum and medial-temporal lobe, suggesting that statistical learning may be related to other forms of associative learning and relational memory.  

Compared with the control group, the CPP and CPA groups showed a significant increase of c-Fos expression in the dorsomedial striatum, central medial nucleus of the thalamus, and the basolateral amygdala.  

Furthermore, the new proliferated cells could differentiate into neurons (BrdU(+)NeuN(+) cells) in the striatum and DG at 28 days after MCAO.  

DA neurons that project to the striatum in the nigrostriatal pathway express GDNF receptors, GFRalpha1.  

Cocaine is an addictive psychostimulant that induces immediate early gene (IEG) expression by activating dopamine (DA) D1 and glutamate NMDA receptors in the striatum.  

Methods: The total RNA was extracted from neonatal rat striatum and the NT-3 cDNA was obtained by reverse transcription and amplified by polymerase chain reaction.  

The topography and chemoarchitecture of the striatum and pallidum in a monotreme, the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) have been studied using Nissl staining in conjunction with myelin staining, enzyme reactivity to acetylcholinesterase and NADPH diaphorase, and immunoreactivity to parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y, and neurofilament protein (SMI-32 antibody). All those components of the striatum and pallidum found in eutherian mammals could also be identified in the echidna's brain, with broad chemoarchitectural similarities to those regions in eutherian brains also apparent. Moreover, the chemoarchitecture of the echidna striatum suggested the presence of striosome-matrix architecture. The morphology of identified neuronal groups (i.e., parvalbumin, calbindin, and neuropeptide Y immunoreactive) in the echidna striatum and pallidum showed many similarities to those seen in eutherians, although the pattern of distribution of calbindin immunoreactive neurons was more uniform in the caudatoputamen of the echidna than in therians.  

In addition to the hippocampus, Abeta(1-40) was found to potentiate K(+)-evoked glutamate release from cortical slices, whereas in the striatum the effect did not reach significant levels.  

We have performed a comparative study of the content of glutamate (Glu), aspartate (Asp), taurine (Tau), glycine (Gly) and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) in the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of the DBA/2J, Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice brain. In a dose of 0.8 mg/kg (i.p.) dilept induced a statistically significant increase in the levels of Glu, Tau and GABA in striatum of DBA/2J, as well as insignificant increase in the levels of these amino acids in the cortex.  

Despite the fact that rat striatum contains high level of both dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors, only the D(1)-specific AC activation by agonists could be determined. It indicates that under given experimental conditions, only dopamine D(1)-receptor-mediated stimulation of AC activity can be measured in membrane homogenate of rat striatum, while dopamine D(2)-receptor effects remain fully hidden..  

We take advantage of our knowledge of the neural circuitry of reward to investigate a puzzling economic phenomenon: Why do people overbid in auctions? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we observed that the social competition inherent in an auction results in a more pronounced blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to loss in the striatum, with greater overbidding correlated with the magnitude of this response.  

The diagnostic effects of local surface deformations mostly pronounced in the associative striatum, as well as the correlation between anterior putamen morphology and affective flattening in unmedicated schizophrenia suggest disease-specific neuroanatomical abnormalities and distinct cortical-striatal dysconnectivity patterns relevant to altered executive control, motor planning, along with abnormalities of emotional processing..  

After baseline testing on a battery of spontaneous motor tests, standard stereotaxic techniques were used to inject 6-hydroxydopamine into the nigrostriatal axons or terminals at the level of the medial forebrain bundle or striatum respectively. Quantitative tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry revealed that although both lesions caused a similar temporal pattern of immunopositive cell loss from the substantia nigra, the terminal lesion caused a more rapid loss of immunopositive terminals from the striatum.  

Bilateral infusion of 6-OHDA in the striatum of rats caused early (1 week) damage of dopaminergic terminals in striatum and in cell bodies in substantia nigra pars compacta. The nigrostriatal lesion was accompanied by early loss of dopamine in the striatum, which remained stable through a 3-week period of observation. These findings suggest that partial striatal dopaminergic degeneration and parallel dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic alterations in striatum and prefrontal cortex may have caused the emotional and cognitive deficits observed in this rat model of early phase PD..  

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic exercise on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, as an indicator of lipid peroxidation, in the hippocampus, which has a high concentration of glucocorticoid receptors, and prefrontal cortex and striatum, which have high dopamine content. In this study it was shown that acute treadmill exercise at different strengths did not cause oxidative stress in prefrontal cortex, striatum and hypocampus regions of the brain. Regular treadmill exercise performed at different strengths was shown not to cause oxidative stress in prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus regions of brain. As a result, we propose that acute and chronic exercise do not cause oxidant stress in prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus and chronic exercise has a favorable effect on hippocampus, possibly by decreasing superoxide radical formation..  

The relative high level of mitochondrial alpha-Syn in hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigral neurons may have special pathophysiological significance, which deserves further investigation..  

In the rat, the lateral posterior thalamic nucleus (LP) has reciprocal connections with areas of the cortex and the striatum involved in directed attention and its dysfunctional counterpart, contralateral neglect. It has also been shown that the medial portion of the mediorostral part of LP (mLPMR) is of special interest because it has connections with the dorsocentral striatum, a key node in this circuitry. These findings suggest that the ventral mLPMR is specifically associated with AGm and dorsocentral striatum, while dorsal mLPMR is associated with ACC.  

use a novel mediation analysis of neuroimaging data to show two independent pathways for the control of emotion by the prefrontal cortex: a path through the amygdala predicts a greater negative emotional response, and a path through the nucleus accumbens/ventral striatum predicts a greater positive response..  

Cytoprotective HSP70 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the striatum of the ipsilateral hemisphere were detected by immunoblotting. Brain sections from the striatum of the ipsilateral hemisphere were double-labeled with the anti-HSP70 antibody and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI).  

This study was carried out to explore the effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) administration in a 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease on GDNF and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in substantia nigra (SN) and striatum. Rats were killed, and the SN and striatum were then removed for GDNF and TH determination. As expected, 6-OHDA injection induced an ipsilateral decrease in TH-immunopositive neuronal cell bodies and axonal terminals in the SN and striatum.  

In patients with oculomotor signs that came to autopsy, neuronal loss was found to predominate in the substantia nigra and the striatum but other brain areas were also affected, including the frontal cortex.  

Our results demonstrated that NVP and EFV significantly inhibited CK activity in cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum and cortex of mice.  

We had reported that neural stem cells from human fetal striatum (hsNSCs) expressed neural stem cell markers, and were capable of differentiation into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in vitro.  

Unexpectedly, striatal (+)[ (11)C]DTBZ binding was increased in methamphetamine users relative to controls (+22%, caudate; +12%, putamen; +11%, ventral striatum).  

Activator of G protein Signaling 1 (AGS1) and Ras homologue enriched in striatum (Rhes) define a new group of Ras-like monomeric G proteins whose signaling properties and physiological roles are just beginning to be understood.  

Functional MRI of young adults has implicated the striatum in the processing of rewarding and punishing events.  

Dopamine transporter density was down-regulated by MDMA in both genotypes in the striatum.  

Striosome volume and cell loss was greatest in the dorsolateral striatum.  

The contribution of (R)-enantiomer of N-methyl-salsolinol (1,2-dimethyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline; NMSal) to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the course of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been predominantly suggested by in vitro experiments in cell culture and by an in vivo study in which this compound has been directly injected into the rat striatum. In the striatum both its doses evoked a significant acceleration of the total and oxidative, monoamine oxidase (MAO)-dependent DA catabolism without affecting the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-dependent O-methylation.  

Understanding more accurately the volumetric differences in striatum, especially putamen, between NHP and humans is essential in predicting convective volume parameters in human clinical trials. In this study, magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained for volumetric measurements of striatum (putamen and caudate nucleus) and whole brain from 11 PD patients, 13 aged healthy human subjects, as well as 8 parkinsonian and 30 normal NHP. However, this ratio is significantly smaller for striatum (5.7-6.5), caudate nucleus (4.6-6.6) and putamen (4.4-6.6).  

The striatum receives a compressed version of cortical information and transforms it through complex processes of activation/deactivation under a double dopaminergic and cholinergic control that enables behavioral reinforcement learning.  

We report that amphetamine-induced DA release measured by PET is markedly impaired in the striatum of Mn-exposed animals. These findings provide compelling evidence that the effects of Mn on DA synapses in the striatum are mediated by inhibition of DA neurotransmission and are responsible for the motor deficits documented in these animals..  

striatum (and for some studies hippocampus and cerebral cortex as well) were evaluated for BBB leakage, tight junction protein expression levels, integrity of dopaminergic neurons, and activation of astrocytes and microglia using immunostaining, immunoblotting and real-time PCR techniques. We found that caffeine blocked MPTP-induced decreases in numbers of TH-positive dopaminergic neurons, increases in leakage of Evan's blue dye and FITC-albumin in striatum but not in cerebral cortex or hippocampus, decreases in levels of the tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1, and increases in reactive gliosis.  

DARPP32 has been identified as a target for dopamine and PKA in the striatum.  

OBJECTIVE: We determined whether administration of a single dose of nicotine alters the biosynthesis of Dyn in the striatum of mice.  

Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to determine the expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT), OX-42 (a marker of microglial activation), and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP, a marker of astrocyte activation) in the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum (ST).  

A significant decrease of about 20% in the density of M1 receptor was detected in the cortex and in the striatum of amphetamine model rats. A significant increase of 33% in the density of the M1 receptor was found in the cortex and striatum of rats treated chronically with clozapine (0.5 mg/kg), but not with haloperidol (25 mg/kg). Chronic clozapine, but not haloperidol, normalized the decrease in M1 receptors observed in amphetamine model rats, in both cortex and striatum.  

We observed time-dependent changes after a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway with increased expression levels in the deafferented striatum after 3 weeks. These data suggest, for the first time, an involvement of the cystine/glutamate antiporter in determining the aberrant glutamate neurotransmission in the striatum of a parkinsonian brain..  

Changes in caspase-3, Abeta and BACE1 levels were detected in rat striatum on different days after middle cerebral artery occlusion using immunostaining. We found that the positive labeled cells of activated caspase-3, Abeta, and BACE1 were significantly and time-dependently increased in the ipsilateral striatum. Moreover, Z-DEVD-FMK reduced BACE1 and GFAP double-labeled cells, but not GFAP protein levels or GFAP-labeled cells, in the ipsilateral striatum.  

The purpose of this study was to determine whether nigrostriatal DA depletion affects measures of insulin resistance in the striatum. Increased IRS2 serine phosphorylation, a marker of insulin resistance, was observed in the DA-depleted striatum. Decreased phosphorylation of AKT and expression of the kinase glycogen synthase kinase-3 alpha (GSK3-alpha) was also measured in the striatum of severely DA-depleted animals. Finally, expression of heat shock protein 25 (Hsp25), which is protective against oxidative damage and can decrease stress kinase activity, was decreased in the striatum of lesioned rats.  

The same reciprocal changes present in the cortex/striatum and the hippocampus of reeler mice.  

Its role in important brain structures such as the midbrain, the lateral septal complex, the hypothalamus, the olfactory bulb, the pons, the choroid plexus, the nucleus pallidus, the striatum and the amygdala, the nucleus accumbens and the anterior cingulated gyrus candidate it as a promising target for genetic association studies.  

Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by the atrophy of the striatum due to losses of projection neurons, while interneurons are relatively spared. We addressed this issue by applying a double immunofluorescent labeling technique to postmortem striatum from HD patients and controls. Large interneurons containing only Cr, ChAT, or both occurred in the normal human striatum and a twofold decrease in the density of Cr+/ChAT+ and Cr-/ChAT+ neurons was recorded in HD striatum compared to controls.  

On a brain regional level, parent radioligand ranged from 87.5 +/- 3.9% (57.2 +/- 14.2% SUV [ standard uptake values, %injected radioactivity per mL multiplied with animal weight (in g)]; cerebellum) to 92.9 +/- 1.8% (36.1 +/- 4.7% SUV; striatum), with differential distribution of the radiometabolite in the cerebellum (6.7 +/- 0.3% SUV) and the striatum (2.5 +/- 0.3% SUV). 125%SUV) with the following rank order of regional brain radioactivity: cerebellum x thalamus > cortical regions > striatum.  

The striatum is particularly sensitive to the irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP).  

The presymptomatic phase of the disease may be sustained by biochemical modifications within the striatum.  

Studies in mice indicate Arx plays a role in neuronal progenitor proliferation and development of the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hippocampus, striatum, and olfactory bulbs.  

Melatonin-mediated changes in clock gene expression have been reported in brain regions, including the striatum, that are crucial for the development of dopaminergic behaviors and mood. However, it is not known whether melatonin receptors present in striatum mediate these effects. Therefore, we investigated the role of the melatonin/melatonin receptor system on clock gene expression using a model of primary neuronal cultures prepared from striatum.  

We report that the pig autoradiographic 5-HT(4) receptor distribution resembles the human 5-HT(4) receptor distribution with the highest binding in the striatum and no detectable binding in the cerebellum. The binding potentials calculated for striatum, midbrain, and cortex from the PET data were highly correlated with 5-HT(4) receptor concentrations determined in brain homogenates from the same regions, except for hippocampus where PET-measurements significantly underestimate the 5-HT(4) receptor binding, probably because of partial volume effects.  

Whereas control participants showed increased orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, and striatum activity during the late (vs.  

We found an increased activation in the left dorsal striatum compared with temporally uncorrelated feedback and the no-feedback condition.  

Similar results were observed in vivo, where a 40% reduction of luciferase activity was found in the striatum of luciferase mice.  

The action of S33084 was regionally specific inasmuch as its injection into the nucleus accumbens or striatum was ineffective.  

In contrast, when an action with a lower value is unexpectedly requested, the CM-PF induces an 'externally driven rebiasing' process in the striatum that aborts the pre-action bias and assists selecting and executing actions appropriate for unexpected situations.  

amygdala, ventral striatum, and tectum.  

Moreover BDNF concentrations were higher in the striatum of 5 months old ABH mice when compared to ABG mice.  

The corresponding occupancy of MCH(1) receptors in rat striatum was also measured across a broad dose range.  

Whereas the nucleus accumbens is necessary for the acquisition and expression of certain appetitive Pavlovian responses and contributes to the motivational control of instrumental performance, the dorsal striatum is necessary for the acquisition and expression of instrumental actions.  

Methamphetamine (3 mg/kg, i.p.) induced Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) dominantly in the striatum and the globus pallidus (GP) on the intact side as well as in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) on the lesioned side in the 6-OHDA rats. Lower levels of methamphetamine-induced FLI in the striatum and GP on the lesioned side were restored by intrastriatal grafts which could completely suppress the methamphetamine-induced rotation. In the striatum, a similar tendency could be observed between Fos and Zif268 immunoreactivity following methamphetamine.  

The present study demonstrates that GSTpi is actively expressed in both substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum of C57BL/6 mice brain, mostly in oligodendrocytes and astrocytes.  

LGE neurons transplanted into the adult striatum formed projections not only to the substantia nigra, a normal target, but also to the claustrum and through all layers of fronto-orbital cortex, regions that do not normally receive striatal input. To examine the relationship between the donor cells and host brain in establishing the pattern of projections, we transplanted cortical precursors into the adult striatum.  

Caffeine given systemically (15 mg/kg) or into the dorsal striatum or external globus pallidus (GP(E); 20-40 mug) increased contralateral forepaw stepping by 14%, 27%, and 26%, respectively, and enhanced the effect of 8 mg/kg L-DOPA on stepping. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that A(2A) antagonists may be therapeutic in human PD patients and indicate that the dorsal striatum and GP(E) are critical sites of therapeutic action..  

l-NNA treatment produced decreases in NO levels in the frontal cortex, striatum, brainstem and cerebellum, while in the occipital cortex changes were observed at PD120.  

CM/Pf lesion prevented the changes produced by the dopamine denervation in the components of the indirect pathway connecting the striatum to the output structures (striatopallidal neurons, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus), and among the output structures, in the entopeduncular nucleus.  

hippocampus, parietal cortex, have been implicated in acquisition and retention performance in the 14-unit T-maze, there has been no evaluation of the involvement of the striatum, a brain region implicated in procedural learning and memory. The current study revealed that excitotoxic lesions of the medial or lateral striatum significantly impaired acquisition, as measured by errors and latency, on this task without disruption of motor function. These results indicate that the 14-unit T-maze most likely is requires a large egocentric procedural learning component, and previously observed AAMI may involve age-related dysfunction of the striatum..  

BACKGROUND: The term basal ganglia usually includes the striatum, globus pallidus, substantia nigra and the subthalamic nucleus.  

The model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in 7-day-old rats produces sensorimotor cortex, thalamus and striatum injury, which are all critical for the maintenance of sensory motor function.  

Changes in the extracellular concentration of histamine were examined in the striatum by a microdialysis procedure, and effects of these compounds were evaluated.  

In support of this data, expression levels of PAD2 protein as well as its enzyme activity were significantly increased in brain sections of scrapie-infected mice, including hippocampus, brain stem, and striatum.  

We have previously shown that the ERK pathway is important for the regulation in gene expression observed in mice striatum after acute treatment with MDMA.  

Experimental manipulations and mouse genetics show that downregulation of Nkx2-1 expression in postmitotic cells is necessary for the migration of interneurons to the cortex, whereas maintenance of Nkx2-1 expression is required for interneuron migration to the striatum. Nkx2-1 exerts this role in the migration of MGE-derived interneurons by directly regulating the expression of a guidance receptor, Neuropilin-2, which enables interneurons to invade the developing striatum.  

demonstrate that postmitotic Nkx2-1 regulates migration and sorting of interneurons to the striatum or cortex by controlling the expression of the guidance receptor, Neuropilin-2..  

On completion of the self-administration study, a guide cannula was implanted into the striatum of these mice.  

Glutamate in striatum and NPBI in cortex were analyzed in microdialysate.  

The amounts of CML increased with age in cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and midbrain, but were unchanged in the brainstem and cerebellum.  

Taken together, our results imply that a deficiency in 19S Rpt6 may be partially related to the MPTP-induced increase in alpha-synuclein in the striatum..  

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder of largely unknown etiology caused by a pathological cascade resulting in the degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) projecting to the nucleus striatum, the main input station of the basal ganglia neuronal circuit.  

Although the striatum remains the main functional target of dopamine, it is now appreciated that there is dopaminergic innervation of the pallidum, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra.  

This is mediated by the complex organization of the striatum, where the excitability of medium spiny neurons is controlled by several pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms as well as interneuron activity, and secured by several recurrent or internal BG circuits. The motor circuit of the BG has two entry points, the striatum and the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and an output, the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), which connects to the cortex via the motor thalamus. Neuronal afferents coding for a given movement or task project to the BG by two different systems: (1) Direct disynaptic projections to the GPi via the striatum and STN. The parkinsonian state is characterized by disruption of the internal balance of the BG leading to hyperactivity in the two main entry points of the network (striatum and STN) and excessive inhibitory output from the GPi.  

End points of neurotoxicity included dopamine (DA) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) concentrations in NSDA axon terminals in the striatum, and stereological cell counts of TH immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra.  

In the striatum, an early prenatal peak and a second postnatal rise in M1 levels was observed, whereas M23 levels slowly increased postnatally. M1 levels were higher in the striatum. We assume that functional water transport in the striatum precedes that of the midbrain, thus pointing at an accelerated onset of compartmentalization of brain structures and blood-brain barrier establishment in the neostriatum..  

RESULTS: The (123)I-labeled ioflupane single-photon emission computed tomography showed reduced radiotracer uptake in both striatum more marked in the putamen and on the left side in patient 1 and reduced radiotracer uptake in both putamen more marked on the right side in patient 2.  

In conclusion, Mn caused increased oxidative stress and decreased (45)Ca(2+) influx into the striatum, which are likely linked to impaired locomotor activity, but not with the occurrence of orofacial dyskinesia..  

Newborn neurons migrate to the injured striatum, but few survive long-term and little evidence exists to suggest that they integrate or contribute to functional recovery. All treatments influenced the location of BrdU- and DCx-positive cells in the post-stroke striatum. RA/EE increased the number of BrdU/NeuN-positive cells in the injured striatum but did not lead to improvements in behavioral function. Further study of the integration of adult-born neurons in the ischemic striatum is necessary to determine their restorative potential..  

Here, we examine alterations in brain volume and growth factor expression in the cerebellum and striatum, motor regions that may contribute to the improved behavioral performance seen with choline supplementation.  

RESULTS: Fiber tractographies through the corpus callosum (CC) were easily visualized with the 30-direction gradient scheme, and the fiber trajectories of the motor cortex and striatum were well represented in normal rats.  

To clarify the relationship between G(olf) protein and the antidepressive effects of antipsychotics, we examined the effects of chronic treatment with several antipsychotics on the level of G(olf) protein in the rat striatum.  

PD-like symptoms and dopamine content in corpus striatum (CS) were also assessed.  

In addition, we measured epibatidine binding in the brain, and transcription status in the striatum, using microarrays, in wild type and TgR mice. In control mice, chronic nicotine augmented epibatidine binding in several areas of the brains, including the hippocampus and striatum. In TgR transgenics, chronic nicotine increased epibatidine binding in some areas, but not in the hippocampus or the striatum. Since the striatum is involved in the mechanisms of drug addiction, we studied how the transgene affected striatal gene expression.  

Unilateral ITet injection into the striatum induced rotational behavior in the mutant mice and the rotations gradually reversed to the normal level.  

Regional levels of d-Ser were found to be significantly higher in cortex, striatum, and hippocampus than in thalamus.  

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intrastriatal injection of hypoxanthine on ectonucleotidase (E-NTPDases and ecto-5'-nucleotidase) activities and expressions in the striatum of rats. The effect of pre-incubation with hypoxanthine on nucleotide hydrolysis in striatum homogenate was also determined.  

ICH was induced by stereotactic injection of collagenase type VII (0.075 U) into the right striatum.  

To evaluate the modulatory effect of PS in vivo, we infused PS into rat striatum via a microdialysis probe while monitoring local extracellular dopamine (DA) levels. The results demonstrate that exogenous PS, at nanomolar concentrations, is able to increase DA overflow in the striatum through an NMDA receptor mediated pathway..  

In vivo, the injection of autologous blood into the right striatum to produce ICH injury resulted in MMP-3 expression within 3 h.  

Some brain regions strongly involved in cognition such as the prefrontal cortex, hippocampal formation and corpus striatum, are densely innervated by serotonergic and dopaminergic afferents proceeding from the raphe complex and the mesocorticolimbic or nigrostriatal systems, respectively.  

Nevertheless, a regulatory role of 5-HT/DA interactions in cognition and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the striatum as a neuroanatomical substrate for these DA/5-HT interactions, are now recognized. Experimental evidence indicates that pharmacological disruption of serotonin neurotransmission results in a facilitative effect on the processing of mnemonic information by cerebral regions under strong, functional DA modulation, such as the striatum and the PFC; on the other hand, increased serotonin neurotransmission appears to have a detrimental effect on cognitive functions integrated in these structures.  

The neurodegenerative processes underlying PD result in loss of serotonin (5-HT) input from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) to the striatum, but to a lesser extent than loss of dopamine input. Suppressing the activity of these 5-HT inputs to the striatum via presynaptic 5-HT(1A) agonists may reduce LID. Postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors in the striatum may modulate dopamine to reduce LID and the atypical antipsychotic, clozapine is effective at reducing LID without worsening PD.  

In fact, serotonergic terminals have been reported to make synaptic contacts with both substantia nigra dopamine-containing neurons and their terminal areas such as the striatum, the globus pallidus and the subthalamus.  

This appears to be mediated mainly through the combined effect of relatively more potent blockade of 5-HT(2A) receptors, located on cortical and hippocampal glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, as well as cell bodies of the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine (DA) neurons, and weaker blockade of D(2) receptors in the ventral and dorsal striatum and pyramidal neurons in cortical areas, as well as the cell bodies of DA neurons. This combination of effects is important to their ability to enhance cortical and hippocampal DA efflux, which, while producing less increase of DA efflux in the striatum.  

Using in vivo microdialysis, an increase in extracellular GABA concentrations in the striatum was observed in response to Mn exposure and ID although correlational analysis reveals that extracellular GABA is related more to extracellular iron levels and not Mn.  

[ (3)H]SCH 23390 binding to DA D1 receptors following 30 days of abstinence was significantly higher in all portions of the striatum, compared to control animals, whereas [ (3)H]raclopride binding to DA D2 receptors was not different between groups. [ (3)H]WIN 35 428 binding to DAT was also significantly higher throughout virtually all portions of the dorsal and ventral striatum following 30 days of abstinence.  

Huntington's disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by loss of spiny neurons in the striatum and cortex, which usually happens in the third or fourth decades of life. In advanced form of the disease, progressive striatum atrophy happens and medium spiny neurons, which occupy more than 80% of the striatum, become atrophic. After unilateral lesion in striatum was caused by quinolinic acid (QA), bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells, which were isolated and purified from 4-6 weeks old rats, were transplanted into the damaged striatum. After 9 weeks of transplantation, the volume of striatum, lateral ventricles and hemispheres were measured in control (normal) and test (QA injected + cell transplanted) groups. After volume determination, the atrophy percentage of both striatum and damaged hemisphere and volume extension of lateral ventricles were calculated. Histologic results showed significant difference in amount of striatum atrophy between sham (only QA injected) and test groups.  

RATIONALE: Somatostatin and its receptors have been localized in brain nuclei implicated in motor control, such as the striatum, nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, and globus pallidus (GP). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the role of somatostatin receptors (sst(1,2,4)) in the GP on dopamine (DA)-mediated behaviors, such as locomotor activity, and to examine the GP-striatum circuitry by correlating the effect of somatostatin in the GP with the release of DA in the striatum. The effect of somatostatin, administered intrapallidally, on the extracellular concentrations of DA, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid in the striatum was also studied in the behaving rat using in vivo microdialysis methodology. DA levels increased in the striatum after intrapallidal infusion of somatostatin (240 ng/side). CONCLUSIONS: These data provide behavioral and neurochemical evidence of the functional role of somatostatin receptors in the GP-striatum circuitry..  

Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 280-350 g, received in the striatum bilateral infusions of saline, somatostatin, and selective sst(1), sst(2), and sst(4) ligands.  

In this study we report that repeated forced swim stress caused a significant phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in both the caudate and nucleus accumbens regions of the mouse striatum.  

In the context of realistic experiments (binding of (11)C-Raclopride to D2 dopaminergic receptors in the striatum; local glucose metabolic rate measurement with (18)F-FDG and H(2)O(15) blood flow measurements in the somatosensory cortex), we have calculated the detection efficiencies and corresponding contribution of 511 keV gammas from peripheral organs accumulation. Finally, since stereotaxic accuracy is crucial for quantification in most microprobe studies, the influence of stereotaxic positioning error was studied for several realistic experiments in favorable and unfavorable experimental situations (binding of (11)C-Raclopride to D2 dopaminergic receptors in the striatum; binding of (18)F-MPPF to 5HT1A receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus)..  

Our results indicate a significant increase in dopaminergic neurotransmission and a decrease in glutamatergic neurotransmission (P<0.05) only after selective COX-2 inhibition in the striatum of normal and hemiparkinsonian rats.  

In situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry analysis of the striatum also showed a reduction in the levels of prodynorphin mRNA and FosB/DeltaFosB-immunopositive cells in creatine-supplemented diet group, an effect that was dependant on the development of AIMs. Further investigation of the bioenergetics' status of the denervated striatum revealed significant changes in the levels of creatine both after L-DOPA alone and with the supplemented diet.  

Surprisingly, the middle-aged groups showed an elevation of glutamate-decarboxylase immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampus and the striatum, an increase of dopamine output in the striatum and enhanced vascular remodelling in the hippocampus when compared with the young and, in some cases, aged groups.  

Furthermore, D1 receptor signaling was impaired, accompanied by D1 receptor hyperphosphorylation at serine sites and subcellular redistribution of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in both PFC and striatum of Fmr1(-/-) mice.  

Previous evidence suggests that such computations are expressed in the striatum and, as they are cognitively impenetrable, represent an unconscious learning mechanism. Functional neuroimaging revealed that during conditioning cue values and prediction errors, generated from a computational model, both correlated with activity in ventral striatum.  

Besides limb shaking, that seems to reflect a transient diffuse ischemia of the frontosubcortical motor pathway, lesions are described at all levels of the frontosubcortical motor circuit including the sensorimotor frontoparietal cortex, the striatum, the pallidum, the thalamic nuclei, the subthalamic nucleus, the substantia nigra, the cerebellum, the brainstem and their interconnecting pathways, as ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes.  

The study tested the hypothesis that transplantation of human neurotrophin-3 (hNT-3) over-expressing neural stem cells (NSCs) into rat striatum after a severe focal ischemia would promote functional recovery. Rat NSCs, transduced by Flag-tagged hNT-3 gene mediated by lentiviral vector (LV), were transplanted into the striatum ipsilateral to the injury of adult rats 7 days after 2-h occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO).  

Retinoid receptors are abundant in the striatum and hippocampus, brain structures involved in implicit and explicit memory processes, respectively.  

CONCLUSION: While we are at a preliminary stage in understanding the neural circuitry behind emotional processing, there appears to be a top-down regulation of affect with prefrontal systems modulating subcortical structures such as the amygdala and the ventral striatum.  

Dopamine (DA) axons in the developing striatum cluster in discrete areas called "DA islands". By using dedicated stereology we found that the newborn striatum contains striatal TH+ cells, which cluster around newly sprouted DA axons.  

RESULTS: Patients with trichotillomania showed increased grey matter densities in the left striatum, left amygdalo-hippocampal formation, and multiple (including cingulate, supplementary motor, and frontal) cortical regions bilaterally.  

To monitor this activity, we measured the ratio of 5-methyl cytosine to unmethylated cytosine in reelin and GAD67 promoters in the mouse frontal cortex and striatum.  

RESULTS: The main centers affected in the NERD-H patients included the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), primary somatosensory cortex (S1), right prefrontal cortex (PFC), right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insular cortex, amygdala, striatum, motor cortex and its supplementary area, and cerebellum cortices, which form part of the matrix controlling emotional, autonomic modulatory responses to pain.  

METHODS: Twenty-four male SD rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and were randomly divided into 2 equal groups: INPC group undergoing transplantation of BrdU-labeled INPCs into the penumbra zone in striatum using stereotaxic apparatus 3 days after brain ischemia, and control group undergoing transplantation of PBS.  

RESULTS: The new reconstruction-based scatter compensation outperformed the other two scatter-correction methods in terms of quantitative accuracy and contrast measured with normalized mean-squared error, gray-to-white matter and striatum-to-background ratios, and also in visual quality.  

The striatum in the mammalian forebrain displays a unique mosaic organization (subdivided into two morphologically and functionally defined neuronal compartments: the matrix and the striosomes) that underlies important functional features of the basal ganglia.  

Brief handling of mice increased corticosterone levels in plasma but not in striatum and reduced those in the hippocampus. However, by 30 min in the novel environment, plasma concentrations rose further while those in striatum and cerebral cortex fell to control levels and hippocampal corticosterone remained elevated. Adrenalectomy reduced plasma corticosterone concentrations to below detectable levels after 48 h but corticosterone levels were only partially reduced in the hippocampus and striatum and remained unchanged in the cerebral cortex.  

A key feature of all addictive drugs is the ability to increase synaptic dopamine levels in the striatum, a mechanism involved in their rewarding and motivating effects. Here we show that Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component in cannabis, induces dopamine release in the human striatum. Using the dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor tracer [ (11)C]raclopride and positron emission tomography in seven healthy subjects, we demonstrate that THC inhalation reduces [ (11)C]raclopride binding in the ventral striatum and the precommissural dorsal putamen but not in other striatal subregions.  

The Taqman PCR assay revealed a decreased expression of c-jun and neurocan in the ischemic striatum of GHB-treated mice in comparison to saline-treated mice.  

Furthermore, ADX47273 blocked PCP, apomorphine and amphetamine-induced locomotor activities (MED = 100 mg/kg, IP) in mice, and decreased extracellular levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the striatum, in rats.  

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