Third Ventricle

Multiple lesions with perifocal oedema and severe compression of the third ventricle were seen with computed tomography (CT) of the brain.  

third ventricle administration of a CRFR2 antagonist, antisauvagine 30, had no effect in RRS rats, but caused sustained weight loss in control animals. Key words: third ventricle, hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, food intake, body weight..  

AM2 and ANG II injected into the third ventricle increased arterial pressure, while AM5 decreased it in a dose-dependent manner, and both AM2 and AM5 decreased blood pressure when injected to fourth ventricle.  

The authors report on a patient with Terson's syndrome after endoscopic colloid cyst resection of the third ventricle.  

OBJECTIVE: Microsurgical excision of colloid cysts of the third ventricle is accomplished along the transcallosal or the transfrontal routes. Nineteen cases of symptomatic colloid cysts of the third ventricle whose diagnoses were proven by CT and/or MRI were subjected to microsurgery in the period from June 2004 to May 2007. CONCLUSION: The pre-coronal, paramedian minicraniotomy is safe and effective for the total excision of colloid cysts of the third ventricle.  

A prototype epicranial apparatus was placed surgically, allowing easy and exact localization of the third ventricle for infusions or sampling.  

Endodermal sinus tumor, or yolk sac tumor, is the most common malignant neoplasm of germ cell origin and usually occurs in infant testes or ovaries.(1) On rare occasions, the tumor may arise from extragonadal sites, including sacrococcygeal region, uterus, vagina, prostate, retroperitoneum, liver, mediastinum, pineal gland, and third ventricle.(1) The orbit is an unusual location for the primary development of this neoplasm.(2,3) We report the case of a girl with primary orbital endodermal sinus tumor who was managed with exenteration and chemotherapy with the result of a disease-free survival of 9 years..  

The authors report the first case of a chordoid meningioma in the third ventricle. Brain MR imaging revealed a 2-cm, well-enhanced mass in the third ventricle and hydrocephalus.  

OBJECT: Intraventricular anatomy has been detailed as it pertains to endoscopic surgery within the third ventricle, particularly for performing endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and endoscopic colloid cyst resection. Given the common occurrence of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) and cavum vergae (CV), the endoscopic surgeon should be familiar with that particular anatomy especially as it pertains to surgery within the third ventricle. METHODS: From a prospective database of endoscopic surgical cases were selected those cases in which the defined pathology necessitated surgery within the third ventricle and there was coexistent CSP and CV. Features of the intracavitary anatomy were assessed regarding their importance in approaching the third ventricle. RESULTS: Four cases involving endoscopic surgery within the third ventricle (2 colloid cyst resections and 2 ETVs) were identified in which the surgical objective was accomplished through a septal cavum. Because of the ventricular distortion, a stereotactic transcavum route was used for approaching the third ventricle. Entry into the third ventricle was accomplished through an interforniceal fenestration immediately behind the anterior commissure. CONCLUSIONS: In the presence of a CSP and CV, endoscopic navigation into the third ventricle can be problematic via a transforaminal approach. Alternatively, a transcavum interforniceal route for endoscopic surgery in the third ventricle is suggested, with the rostral lamina and the anterior commissure as important anatomical landmarks.  

A patient with a ganglioglioma is presented in the previously unreported location of the anterior third ventricle at the foramen of Monro, mimicking a colloid cyst.  

Forty patients (23 men and 17 women; median age, 45 years) with suprasellar, hypothalamic, and third ventricle neoplasms underwent long-echo (TR: 2000 ms, TE: 136 ms, 128-256 acquisitions) single-voxel (1)H-MRS before surgical treatment. In conclusion, in cases of initially diagnosed suprasellar tumors with involvement of the hypothalamus and extension into the third ventricle pattern analysis of the single-voxel (1)H-MRS can provide valuable information, which, in addition to structural MRI, can be effectively used for diagnostic purposes..  

Case Report: We describe the case of a 40-year-old man with a severe headache accompanied by confusion who was diagnosed with obstructive hydrocephalus associated with a colloid cyst in the third ventricle.  

Whole cell current-clamp recordings were performed in OT neurons from pregnant rats (19-22 days in gestation) that were infused with an OTR antagonist (OTA) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) and from virgin rats infused with ACSF into the third ventricle via an osmotic minipump beginning on day 12-14 of gestation.  

OBJECTIVE: In a retrospective study, we measured the localization for the burr hole for neuroendoscopic procedures in the third ventricle, which are determined by anatomical landmarks like the foramen of Monro (FM) and the respective targets. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 48 children, thin-sliced T2-weighted magnetic resonance images were analyzed within an imaging software tool to determine the trajectory between the FM to the floor of the third ventricle (F3V) or the entrance of the sylvian aqueduct (SA).  

In the plane of the commissures, the optimal electrode location was determined statistically to be 6.3 mm anterior to the posterior commissure and 12.3 mm lateral to the midline, or 10.0 mm lateral to the third ventricle.  

To analyze catheter placement, we used a new grading system: Grade 1, optimal placement in the ipsilateral frontal horn or third ventricle; Grade 2, functional placement in the contralateral lateral ventricle or noneloquent cortex; and Grade 3, suboptimal placement in the eloquent cortex or nontarget cerebrospinal fluid space, with or without functional drainage.  

Results Both neuropsychologically near normal and neuropsychologically impaired patients had markedly smaller gray matter and larger third ventricle volumes than healthy comparison subjects.  

Central nervous system manifestations of sarcoidosis may be present in 5-10% of the cases involving cranial nerves, leptomeninges and third ventricle respectively.  

Dual-label immunocytochemistry experiments showed that 40-60% of kisspeptin neurons in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V) expressed estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptors.  

Interestingly, RFRP expression in the ependymal cells surrounding the base of the third ventricle was highly photoperiodic, with levels being undetectable in animals held on SP but consistently high under LP.  

Brain MRI analysis included proton density (PD)-lesion volume and T1-hypointensity volume, measures of central atrophy, including the third ventricle width, and corpus callosum (CC). After controlling for age and education a higher third ventricle width was the best predictor for global and specific cognitive impairment.  

third ventricle meningiomas are rare, representing approximately 0.15% of all meningiomas. Less commonly, they arise in the anterior part of the third ventricle. We report the cases of two patients with large and giant meningiomas originating in the anterior part of the third ventricle..  

This technique is a valid choice for the removal of suprasellar lesions with extension into the third ventricle without major sequelae related to the surgical approach.  

Compared with the subfrontal transcranial approach, the endoscopic endonasal approach offers advantages to visualizing the subchiasmatic, retrosellar, and third ventricle areas.  

METHODS: Twenty patients with symptomatic colloid cysts of the third ventricle have been treated endoscopically in our department during the past 10 years.  

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the neuropsychological outcome of patients after surgical treatment for third ventricle brain tumors. CONCLUSION: Patients with third ventricle tumors are at risk for developing impairments in memory, executive function, and fine manual speed and dexterity, which are domains associated with frontal subcortical functions.  

CONCLUSION: Compared with transcallosal craniotomy, neuroendoscopy is a safe and effective approach for removal of colloid cysts in the third ventricle.  

RESULTS: The AIF approach provided adequate access to the anterior third ventricle and related structures (i.e., hypothalamus, infundibular recess, and mamillary bodies) through the corridor bounded by the anterior commissure anteriorly and the choroid plexus at the foramen of Monro posteriorly.  

RESULTS: Tumors were located in the third ventricle in 11 patients and the lateral ventricle in 4 patients.  

The cistern of the velum interpositum is a space located between the corpus callosum dorsally and the roof of the third ventricle ventrally. Tumors of the third ventricle displace the internal cerebral veins dorsally.  

Based on our findings, the above-mentioned vessels of this perforating substance supply the floor of third ventricle, hypothalamus and ventral thalamic nuclei.  

Computed tomography (CT) revealed tumor mass in the third ventricle and hydrocephalus. The autopsy findings revealed a solitary metastatic RCC in the third ventricle, with massive intratumoral hemorrhage. Solitary metastasis of RCC to the third ventricle is quite rare and difficult to treat.  

In separate experiments an increase in food intake was observed after injection of purified MC4R Abs into the third ventricle.  

Complete excision of cysts (fourth ventricle, 14; lateral ventricle, 4; third ventricle, 3; both lateral and third ventricles, 1) was performed in all patients.  

Chordoid gliomas are rare, slow-growing neoplasms of the anterior third ventricle.  

We describe the cases of a mother and son who presented one year apart with a colloid cyst of the third ventricle. There have been several reported instances of a familial association of colloid cysts of the third ventricle.  

This report describes a colloid cyst of the third ventricle presenting in a 23-year-old woman.  

The projection of the surgical corridor, posterior to anterior and inferior upward, is particularly valuable in dissecting the upper pole of the tumor, which projects high into the third ventricle.  

Methods: To test this hypothesis, we first placed cannulas into the third ventricle of 24-day-old male rat pups.  

Under basal conditions, CRH mRNA expressing cells were exclusively revealed in the paraventricular region along the third ventricle.  

All had a 3 Tesla brain magnetic resonance scan at age 17-20, and the following measurements were performed: biparietal and occipitofrontal diameters, width and depth of the frontal and occipital horns, diameter of the third ventricle and the frontal sub-arachnoid space.  

The majority of gene expression changes are confined to two restricted areas: the dorsomedial posterior arcuate nucleus, and the ventral ependymal layer of the third ventricle.  

In the hypothalamus, two types of glial cells, astrocytes and ependymal cells lining the latero-ventral portion of the third ventricle (known as tanycytes), regulate the secretory activity of neuroendocrine neurones.  

Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle constitutes a rare, very recently recognized histological entity. Most reports of this neoplasm, focused on its distinct histological features, have hypothesized about a probable origin of the lesion at the third ventricle floor and/or the lamina terminalis. MRI investigation showed a large solid-cystic third ventricle mass bulging through the lamina terminalis and ventricular floor. No other adhesions to the third ventricle boundaries were found. Chordoid glioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of third ventricle tumors. The trans-lamina terminalis approach provides a suitable route for an early control of this attachment under direct vision, allowing a safe dissection of the mass from the third ventricle..  

In in vivo experiments, Abeta(25-35) was administered into the indusium griseum or the third ventricle and several parameters were measured 7 days later to evaluate potential Abeta(25-35)/BDNF interactions, i.e.  

By using osmotic pumps, we have shown that in aged rats, IGF-I treatment in the third ventricle for four weeks increases water intake and restores diuresis and AVP plasma release similar with that observed in adults.  

The best cognitive predictors of adaptive functioning were hypothesized to be attention span within the cerebellar group and verbal memory within the third ventricle group. Auditory attention span significantly predicted communication skills for the cerebellar group, whereas verbal memory significantly predicted socialization skills for the third ventricle group.  

The values of the cella media index and the width of the third ventricle were calculated.  

The mean annual width increase of the third ventricle was 0.20 mm (P<0.001, 95% confidence interval [ CI] 0.15-0.25), for the frontal horn width 0.32 mm (P<0.001, 95% CI 0.23-0.40), and increase of the intercaudate distance was 0.26 mm (P<0.001, 95% CI 0.19-0.33).  

Three cannulae were placed in the supraoptic, infundibular, and pineal recesses of the third ventricle.  

Acute parenchymal MTII microinjections into the PVH of awake, freely-moving hamsters, using doses below those able to increase IBAT temperature when injected into the third ventricle, increased IBAT temperature for as long as 4 h, as measured by temperature transponders implanted below the tissue.  

Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) is a rare congenital arteriovenous malformation of the choroid plexus situated within the roof of the third ventricle.  

Brain sections counter-stained for the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) revealed that IL-6 and the IL-6R were co-localized in periventricular areas adjoining the third ventricle.  

Dense cytoplasmic staining was observed predominantly within ependymal cells lining the anterior third ventricle region (AV3V), as well as cells of the choroid plexus.  

Cysts occupying the third ventricle are rare lesions and may appear as an unusual cause of obstructive hydrocephalus.  

Flow-sensitive phase-contrast cine MR images revealed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow through the floor of the third ventricle between the tuber cinereum and the mammillary bodies connecting the ventricular system with the prepontine cistern.  

Recently it was indicated that microinjections of heat shock proteins 70 kDa (Hsp70) into the third ventricle of brain in pigeons results in an increase in the duration of slow wave sleep and a decrease in somato-visceral indices.  

The cranial MRI revealed a tumor in the third ventricle and a further tumor in the fourth ventricle, which could cause a transient obstruction of the CSF pathways.  

The antipressor action of L-Type calcium channel antagonist, nifedipine, has been studied when it was injected into the third ventricle prior to angiotensin II. Adult male Holtzman rats weighting 200-250 g, with cannulae implanted into the third ventricle were injected with angiotensin II.  

Chordoid glioma, which generally occurs in adults, is a rare CNS tumor arising in the anterior part of the third ventricle. We report two cases of chordoid glioma of the third ventricle in a 42-year-old woman and a 51-year-old man, respectively.  

Imaging studies revealed thickening of the proximal end of the pituitary stalk just below the third ventricle, a mass in the paranasal sinus, and a mass encompassing the abdominal aorta.  

The efficiency of endoscopic ventriculostomy (EVS) of the third ventricle is noticeably lower in small children than in adults and many surgeons prefer to shunt them despite the fact that revision has to be resorted to in half of the cases. In addition to the etiology, the efficiency of EVS correlated with factors, such as prolapse of the third ventricular floor into the interpeduncular cistern, the thickened and rigid floor of the third ventricle, and an analysis excluding 3 babies with GVA established a direct correlation between the dysfunction of EVS and the early manifestation of HC. Postoperative clinical improvement was attended by decreases in the anterior-posterior horn ratio in all cases and in the sizes of the third ventricle..  

To study the specific features of development of papilledema (PE) in brain space-occupying lesions, the authors made a statistical analysis of neuroophthalmologic symptoms in 962 patients with brain tumors, colloid cysts of the third ventricle and cholesteatomas, who had been examined at the Research Institute of Neurosurgery during a calendar year.  

Colloid cysts of the third ventricle are benign intracranial tumors that usually become symptomatic in adults, rather than in children.  

Interestingly, leptin also increased P-STAT3 and c-Fos immunoreactivity in a distinctive and transient (from P5 to P13) cell population found in the dorsal part of the third ventricle and in subependymal position.  

BACKGROUND: Colloid cysts are typically located in the region of the anterior third ventricle in the proximity of foramen of Monro.  

A colloid cyst, also called a neuroepithelial cyst, is a slow-growing, benign tumor that occurs in the anterior third ventricle.  

We generated a selective, transient reduction in PTP1B by infusion of an antisense oligonucleotide designed to blunt the expression of PTP1B in rat hypothalamic areas surrounding the third ventricle in control and obese rats.  

Cortical zone of parietal cerebral cortex and ventricular zone of third ventricle were studied following bilateral uterine artery ligation on gestational day 18.  

When the HH presented as a paramedian mass, partly or exclusively bulging into the third ventricle, with a rather vertical plane of attachment, we chose a frameless stereotactic endoscopic technique to disconnect the lesion.  

Twenty-four Polish Longwool ewes, surgically fitted with third ventricle (IIIV) cannulas, were utilized in a replicated switchback design involving 12 ewes per season.  

In an effort to rescue their bone phenotype, we delivered recombinant CART in the third ventricle of the mutant mice but never recorded any improvement of the low bone mass, although this procedure could affect fat pad mass.  

Rats were infused using an osmotic mini-pump into the third ventricle with either TrkAi-fkAb(p75) or TrkAsc-fkAb(p75).  

OBJECTIVE: To further assess the safety and long-term efficacy of endoscopic resection of colloid cysts of the third ventricle. All patients had histologically confirmed colloid cysts of the third ventricle, and complete resection of the lesion was confirmed macroscopically and radiologically in all patients.  

INTRODUCTION: Cystic lesions in and around the third ventricle have been known to cause intermittent and acute obstruction of the foramen of Monroe with rapid onset symptoms. Endoscopy revealed a cyst of the third ventricle, which was excised, leading to good recovery. CONCLUSION: Choroid plexus cysts are rare causes for symptomatic obstruction of the third ventricle and may be difficult to detect on routine investigations and may lead to the wrong choice of treatment.  

SOM-ir cells in the PeVN showed a very characteristic rostro-caudal distribution and localization in relation to the third ventricle.  

The amount of information conveyed from one (afferent) element of the complex, the anteroventral region of the third ventricle (AV3V), to another (an efferent element), the supraoptic nucleus, was increased by hypertonic stimulation (intravenous mannitol, z = 4.39, P < 0.001) and decreased by hypotonic stimulation (intragastric water, z = -3.37, P < 0.001).  

The selective NPFF receptors antagonist RF9 (30nmol) injected into the third ventricle failed to induce significant effect, but it completely antagonized the hypothermia of NPFF (45 nmol) after cerebral administration in mice. in the third ventricle reduced the hypothermia induced by morphine (5nmol,) or nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) (2 nmol).  

When the floor of the third ventricle was translucent, the perforator was effective with the least amount of effort. The instrument was less effective and additional instruments were necessary in patients with arachnoid cysts or when the floor of the third ventricle was thick. The main advantage in using the Grotenhuis perforator was in displacing the floor of the third ventricle away from the basilar artery during perforation.  

RESULTS: The classification scheme divides tumors according to their suprasellar extension: Type I is preinfundibular; Type II is transinfundibular (extending into the stalk); Type III is retroinfundibular, extending behind the gland and stalk, and has 2 subdivisions (IIIa, extending into the third ventricle; and IIIb, extending into the interpeduncular cistern); and Type IV is isolated to the third ventricle and/or optic recess and is not accessible via an endonasal approach.  

By means of scanning electron microscopy the ultrastructure of ependyma was studied in the brain third ventricle of the rats repeatedly exposed to 14-day tail-suspension (TS).  

Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a mass lesion with partial hemorrhage in the suprasellar region extending into the third ventricle.  

Scanning electron and light microscopy were applied to study the third ventricle ependyma in rat's brain after 30-d tail-suspension, 30-d readaptation to the horizontal position, and repeated 14-d suspension in parallel with another group of rats exposed to a single 14-d suspension.  

MRI showed duplication of the pituitary stalk and caudal displacement of the floor of the third ventricle.  

Only four cases of SV through the floor of the third ventricle have been previously reported.  

In addition though, we have discovered expression in: the hippocampal dentate gyrus; a discrete trail linking the ventral telencephalon with the olfactory bulbs; ventral ependyma of the third ventricle from where cells appear to disperse into the hypothalamus; and in the pituitary gland.  

BACKGROUND: Colloid cysts are rare tumors (incidence 3.2/1000000 pear year) located in the anterosuperior part of the third ventricle.  

BACKGROUND: An extended transsphenoidal approach allowed for direct midline exposure of the parasellar structures such as the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and the third ventricle.  

She underwent diagnostic endoscopic biopsy and ETV by flexible endoscopic system, which revealed the mesensephalic cyst wall at the dorsal part of the third ventricle floor.  

The extrinsic astrocytes arose from the ventral neuroepithelium of the third ventricle, dispersed bilaterally to the optic tract, and subsequently to the outer layer of optic tectum, indicating migration of astrocytes along retinal ganglion cell axons.  

At T0 and T5, total brain, gray and white matter, and lateral and third ventricle volumes were measured. They also showed larger increases in lateral and third ventricle volumes than healthy subjects and patients who did not use cannabis during follow-up.  

Brain MRI demonstrated elevation of the third ventricle, a characteristic lack of depiction of the corpus callosum and extension of the bihemispheric fissure to the third ventricle.  

(1) RF9 injected into the third ventricle was devoid of any residual agonist activity, but it completely antagonized the hypothermic effects of NPFF (30 or 45 nmol) after cerebral administration in mice; (2) RF9 did not alter the tail-flick latency and morphine analgesia in nociceptive test, however, co-administration of RF9 prevented the anti-morphine action of intracerebroventricularly applied NPFF (10 nmol, i.c.v.) in the mouse tail-flick assay.  

The CT model also included the presence of petechial haemorrhages, obliteration of the third ventricle or basal cisterns, subarachnoid bleeding, midline shift, and non-evacuated haematoma.  

A 2.2 x 2.2-cm midline mass within the posterior part of the third ventricle with consecutive obstructive hydrocephalus was found in a 44-year-old man presenting with diplopia and gait disturbances.  

BACKGROUND: Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle is a rare type of brain tumor that was recently categorized as a novel tumor entity. Computed tomographic scan showed a well-circumscribed, slightly hyperdense mass with calcification and a cystic component in the anterior part of the third ventricle.  

PROCEDURE: Twenty-two children treated with cranial radiation for third ventricle or cerebellar tumors were included in this archival study.  

Infusion of the K(ATP) channel blocker tolbutamide into the third ventricle resulted in increased LH pulse frequency in animals treated with E(2)+P but was without effect in all other groups.  

The ventromedial (VMN) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei of the hypothalamus are bilateral nuclear groups at the base of the hypothalamus that are organized through the aggregation of neurons born along the third ventricle that migrate laterally. Administration of the GABAB receptor antagonist saclofen and the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline selectively increased the rate of VMN cell movement in slices placed in vitro at embryonic day 14, when cells that form both the ARC and VMN are migrating away from the proliferative zone surrounding the third ventricle.  

BACKGROUND: Chordoid glioma, a rare tumour of the third ventricle, represents a distinct clinico-pathologic entity. Thirty nine examples have been described in the literature, mostly in females and in the third ventricle. Radiologically, the paediatric chordoid glioma was located in the juxtaventricular region in the occipital horn of the lateral ventricle and was of mixed density whereas the adult patient had a typical third ventricle location with homogenous contrast enhancement.  

OBJECTIVE: Although numerous factors have been described that predict outcome after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), very little is know about the role of hemorrhagic dilation of the third ventricle in development of hydrocephalus and prognosis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the presence of hemorrhagic third ventricle dilation after ICH would predict development of hydrocephalus and outcome. Patients with and without third ventricle dilation were compared in terms of hydrocephalus (FHI > 0.38), initial GCS score, age and MAP, and analyses were performed to determine whether third ventricle dilation was a predictor of poor outcome. Of the 22 patients, 12 had third ventricle dilation (width > or = 10 mm) and ten patients had non-dilated third ventricle (width < 10 mm). Patients with third ventricle dilation had lower GCS scores (7.4 +/- 1.8 versus 9.7 +/- 2.1, p < 0.005) and had higher FHI (0.46 +/- 0.06 versus 0.38 +/- 0.02, p < 0.005) as compared to patients with non-dilated third ventricle. Sixty-six percent of patients (8/12) with third ventricle dilation and 60% of patients (6/10) with normal third ventricle were dead 6 months post-operation and mortality rate did not differ significantly. DISCUSSION: Although the roles of various factors are well described in the prognosis of spontaneous ICH, little is known about the role of third ventricle dilation. Based on our results, we concluded that third ventricle dilation is a poor prognostic factor..  

However, midline structures such as falx cerebri, interhemispheric fissure and third ventricle are present in hydranencephaly and are absent in alobar holoprosencephaly, and thalami are never fused in hydranencephaly.  

We also explored the relation between the AI and volumetric measurements for the third ventricle, medial temporal structures (amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus), superior temporal sub-regions, and frontal lobe regions (prefrontal area and anterior cingulate gyrus). The subjects without an AI had a significantly larger third ventricle and smaller parahippocampal gyrus than the subjects with an AI for both groups.  

No significant increase in D2 mRNA was observed in the mediobasal hypothalamus with the exception of a small subpopulation of cells in the lateral walls of the third ventricle.  

Even though no significant differences were found in ventricular/subventricular zones (VZ/SVZ) of the third ventricle (V3) and lateral ventricle (LV) between groups, we obtained interesting results: a stream-like distribution of newly proliferated cells presented along the dorsum of alveus hippocampi (Alv), extending from LV to corpus callosum (CC), and the therapeutic acupuncture showed a marked effect on this region.  

RESULTS: Both patients with schizophrenia and patients with affective psychosis had enlarged lateral and third ventricle volumes.  

A regional analysis of the ependyma of the third ventricle showed that in most regions the ependyma was monolayered. The sidewalls and floor of the ventral portion of the third ventricle showed a multilayered ependyma. Characteristic supraependymal elements were present at the ependymal surface of the third ventricle..  

Endoscopic findings were (a) a narrow foramen of Monro (0/3), (b) hypertrophy of the anterior commissure (1/3), (c) sloping of the third ventricle floor (1/3), (d) a huge massa intermedia (3/3), and (e) opaque third ventricular floor (3/3).  

An infusion of 37.5 microg/kg C48/80 into the cerebral third ventricle evoked increases in plasma renin activity (PRA), and in plasma epinephrine (Epi) and ADH concentrations.  

P2X7 mRNA was expressed in the ependymal cells around the olfactory ventricle, lateral ventricles (LV), third ventricle (3V), cerebral aqueduct (Aq), fourth ventricle (4V), and central canal.  

Ventricular size was measured with the Evans index, third ventricle index, cella media index and ventricular score. The third ventricle exhibits the greatest reduction (25% with a 95% confidence interval: 15.4-34.5) and determines a different pattern of change in ventricular size after endoscopic third ventriculostomy between acute and chronic hydrocephalus.  

Regarding accurate catheter tip placement, 56.1% of the catheter tips were in the ipsilateral lateral ventricle, 7.1% were in the contralateral lateral ventricle, 8.2% were in the third ventricle, 6.1% were within the interhemispheric fissure, and 22.4% were within extraventricular spaces.  

Magnetic resonance imaging of the cortex demonstrated a large hypothalamic hamartoma within the third ventricle, hampering cerebrovascular fluid drainage of the lateral ventricles.  

Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was lower (P < or = 0.01) in 6-month PRL-treated normal mice than in 6-month PRL-treated dwarfs in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and in the dentate gyrus, and lower (P < or = 0.05) in 4-month untreated dwarfs than in 4-month untreated normal mice in the median eminence and the periventricular area surrounding the third ventricle.  

No specimen exhibited a separate choroid plexus of the third ventricle. In each, the choroid plexus of the lateral and third ventricles were the same tissue layer, all arising from the VI. There is no separate choroid plexus of the third ventricle as often described.  

We examined the effect of a chronic 10-day intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of apelin-13 into the third ventricle on food intake, body temperature and locomotor activity in C57BL/6 mice.  

We report a case of an asymptomatic colloid cyst of the third ventricle in a 35-year-old male, which on follow-up MRI at 15 months appears to have spontaneously resolved.  

In the population survey, we measured three linear brain atrophy markers: inter-caudate distance (ICD), third ventricle width (TVW) and frontal horn width (FHW).  

Pterional approach was performed in 211 (68.3%) cases, trans-laminal terminal approach through frontobasal interhemispheric fissure in 55 (17.8%) cases, subfrontal approach in 20 (6.5%) cases, and transcallosum approach into the anterior third ventricle in 11 (3.6%) cases.  

In the experimental model, genistein was infused into the third ventricle (IIIv) of the brain in ewes during the short-daylight period (November-December), when the physiological plasma level of prolactin is low.  

For the first time, in situ hybridization performed on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos shows that the gene encoding this protein is expressed transitionally in the floor plate, the ventral midline of the neural tube, and later in the diencephalic third ventricle roof, the SCO.  

Chordoid glioma is a rare low-grade tumor located in the third ventricle-hypothalamic region.  

Aims: The aim of this study was to perform an intravital analysis of the configuration at the floor of the third ventricle as a possible basis for selection of the ventriculostomy site. Perforation of the floor of the third ventricle was carried out on an individual basis following evaluation of the anatomic situation.  

Morphological evaluation of Bbs1 mutant brain neuroanatomy revealed ventriculomegaly of the lateral and third ventricles, thinning of the cerebral cortex, and reduced volume of the corpus striatum and hippocampus. Ultrastructural examination of the ependymal cell cilia that line the enlarged third ventricle of the Bbs1 mutant brains showed that, whereas the 9 + 2 arrangement of axonemal microtubules was intact, elongated cilia and cilia with abnormally swollen distal ends were present.  

A single lateral scaling factor per target structure is feasible to co-register the Schaltenbrand atlas with PFA in four situations (compensated against the third ventricle, non-compensated, bilateral, and non-bilateral).  

RESULTS: An abnormal gray matter structure that we called hypothalamic adhesion across the anterior-inferior portion of the third ventricle was noted in 48.6%.  

The cranial MRI revealed a tumor in the third ventricle and a further tumor in the fourth ventricle, which could cause a transient obstruction of the CSF pathways.  

In vivo, peripheral administration of MK1 decreased food intake in rats and this effect was blocked by pretreatment with an anti-BDNF antibody administered into the third ventricle.  

A third experiment compared the 4V NPY results with those obtained after NPY infusions (5 microg) into the third ventricle (3V).  

The continuous infusion of OCT3-AS into the third ventricle significantly decreased the expression of OCT3 in choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cells.  

The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was utilized to examine attention, learning, and memory abilities in 42 children with cerebellar (N = 18) and third ventricle tumors (N = 24). In contrast, children with third ventricle tumors exhibited average auditory attentional abilities, but they displayed mild encoding deficits across trials 2-5. Furthermore, the third ventricle group's compromised performance on the delayed recall trial and average performance on the delayed recognition trial is suggestive of underlying retrieval deficits..  

Cysts morphologically identical to colloid cysts are rarely reported to be located in areas outside the third ventricle.  

Using in situ hybridization (wild-type mice) and beta-galactosidase activity (from LacZ insertion element in knockout mice), brain expression of GPR50 was found to be restricted to the ependymal layer of the third ventricle and dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.  

To assess the relationship between brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and onset of secondary progression, we reanalyzed the initial brain MRI scans of 90 relapsing-remitting MS patients, who were clinically followed up for at least 10 years (median 14 years) after their scan, for the number and volume of T2 lesions, and for two measures of brain atrophy (bicaudate ratio and third ventricle width).  

METHODS: 3DFT-CISS sequences and virtual MR endoscopic imaging were performed in a patient before and after endoscopic fenestration procedures, to communicate the lateral ventricle to the third ventricle for the treatment of unilateral ventricular enlargement.  

Tissue structures such as left and right lateral ventricle have achieved over 70% DSI, while other structures such as third ventricle, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus have achieved above 60% DSI..  

The majority of AOVMs located in the third ventricle are cavernous malformations. To the best of our knowledge an angiographically occult arteriovenous malformation (AOAVM) of the third ventricle has not been previously reported. We report an unusual vascular malformation of the third ventricle presenting with hydrocephalus due to mass effect, verified histopathologically as an AOAVM..  

The typical glandular structure of the pars tuberalis was evident beneath the bottom floor of the third ventricle, and the thick glandular structure was present in the foremost region.  

Slight enlargement could be seen in lateral ventricle (n = 1) or lateral ventricle with third ventricle (n = 1).  

Bobble-head doll syndrome (BHDS) presents in childhood and is usually associated with lesions of the third ventricle. Three aspects of this case were of interest: the association of BHDS with Dandy-Walker syndrome, the rare occurrence of BHDS of the "no-no" type, and the absence of third ventricle dilation.  

Computed tomography scans demonstrated enlarged lateral and third ventricles with sulcal effacement, but no obvious mass lesions or hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated a lobulated cyst arising from the choroid plexus of the left lateral ventricle and herniating through the foramen of Monro into the third ventricle, occluding both the foramen of Monro and the cerebral aqueduct. The cyst was no longer in the third ventricle, the foramen of Monro and the aqueduct were patent, and the ventricles were decompressed. To the authors' knowledge, there are no previous reports of a choroid plexus cyst causing acute hydrocephalus due to herniation into the third ventricle.  

CT and MRI demonstrated a lesion of the third ventricle.  

The clock gene expression was determined in the hypothalamic paraventricular and dorsomedial nuclei, dorsal vagal motor nucleus, caudal ventrolateral medulla, nucleus ambiguus, area postrema, and anteroventral third ventricle.  

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hemodynamic sympathetic response evoked by NaCI microinjection into the third ventricle anteroventral brain area (AV3V) in rats long-term fed with high fructose diet.  

Interestingly, during torpor very strong c-fos activation was seen in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus and in tanycytes at the third ventricle, both peaking near the beginning of arousal.  

Compared with the subfrontal transcranial approach, the endoscopic endonasal approach offers advantages to visualizing the subchiasmatic, retrosellar, and third ventricle areas.  

The IVC was reinserted on the right side with the catheter tip placed through the foramen of Monroe into the third ventricle.  

In 1923, William Mixter executed the first successful endoscopic ventriculostomy of the third ventricle.  

Using an immunohistochemical approach, we found that MOR protein was expressed in the neuroepithelia of the lateral ventricles, third ventricle, and aqueduct within the late embryonic (E15.5 and E18.5) mouse brain.  

It was found that advection dominates over diffusion in most of the third ventricle. We hypothesize that this zone may act as a buffer to flatten concentration peaks of pituitary gland hormones released into the CSF of the third ventricle. We further hypothesize that this zone may facilitate the communication between hypothalamus and the pituitary gland through the third ventricle cerebrospinal fluid by prolonging residence times of the communicated hormones..  

Enlargement of the third ventricle shows a particularly strong correlation with cognitive impairment, suggesting clinical relevance of damage to surrounding structures, such as the thalamus.  

The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the location of the tumor (intrasellar and third ventricle floor). At the last follow-up, more patients with intrasellar craniopharyngiomas needed cortisone supplements (79.2% in Group One vs 45.9% in Group Two; p=0.016; Fisher's exact test); however, children with third ventricle floor tumors had more prevalent weight gain (4.2% in Group One vs 27.0% in Group Two; p=0.038; Fisher's exact test). There were different initial presentations and endocrinological outcomes between children with intrasellar and third ventricle floor craniopharyngiomas. However, at the long-term follow-up, children with third ventricle floor tumors had a greater prevalence of being overweight and obese, which was associated with hypothalamic dysfunction..  

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